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The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 




Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. I October, 1930 





Editorial Comment 5 

Professor Leopold Auer Josef Hofmann 9 

The Curtis Institute of Music Caesar Finn 12. 

A Letter from Camden, Maine James Bloom 15 

Summer Activities 17 

Check List of New Books in the Library 2.7 

Musical Calendar 2.8 


Professor Leopold Auer 10 

A Game of Chess with Josef Hofmann in Camden, Maine 18 

Camden Students of Lea Luboshutz 19 

With Louis Bailly in Sorrento, Maine 2.1 

A Salzedo "Bull-Fight" in Seal Harbor, Maine 2.1 

Tea with Marcella Sembrich at Lake George 2.2. 

Horatio Connell and His Students at Chautauqua, N. Y 2.3 

Harriet van Emden and Her Students in Williamstown 214 

Rosario Scalero with His Students in Northern Italy 2.6 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtones 
Copyright 1930 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 

Editorial Comment 


iTH THE INAUGURATION of the Seventh Season of The Curtis 
Institute of Music, we stand on the threshold of a pro- 
gramme of activities w^hich will prove more amplified than 
anything undertaken during past years. And at the outset, 

it is well to pause for a moment to survey the achievements of the 
season just ended, conveniently summarized by our Director in his 
report covering the period from October 192.9 to June 1930. 

Within the Institute there were thirty-seven Students' Concerts 
given in Casimir Hall, and a total of twenty concerts broadcast to 
radio audiences. Outside of the Institute the activities of the students 
covered a wide field. The Curtis Orchestra was heard in four con- 
certs, two in Philadelphia, one in Bryn Mawr, and one in Boston, 
Massachusetts. The Curtis Institute Concert Course consisted of 
twenty-two concerts given before seventeen schools and club groups 
in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Vermont. 
A series of five Chamber Music Concerts was presented in the 
Pennsylvania Museum of Art at Fairmount. 

As a part of the Institute's programme of cooperation with The 
Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, seventeen students appeared in 
the twelve operas presented during the season of 192.9-1930, filling 
fifty-five roles. In D'Albert's Tiefland, there was only one role not 
taken by Curtis Institute students. In addition, The Curtis Orchestra, 
through an arrangement with the Musician's Union of Philadelphia, 
was allowed to play two one-act operas — II Seraglio zindCavalleriaKusfi- 
cana. Forty-five Union members of The Curtis Orchestra also formed 
the majority of the orchestra for Un Ballo in Maschsra. 



Cooperating with The Philadelphia Orchestra, ten students sang 
solo parts in that organization's memorable performance of Mous- 
sorgsky's Boris Godunof, and seventeen students formed the chorus for 
Schonberg's Die Gluckliche Hand in three performances in Philadelphia 
and two in New York. In sixty-eight paid concerts, thirty-two 
students and three ensemble groups appeared in Pennsylvania, New 
York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, and Canada. 
Two students were assisting artists in the Director's concert before the 
Philadelphia Forum. In the four public concerts of The Curtis 
Orchestra, three students appeared as solo artists. 

In accordance with the Director's plan of launching young artists 
in their concert careers, The Curtis Institute sponsored the European 
concert tour of Henri Temianka, Violin, during the past season. Mr. 
Temianka gave recitals at The Hague, Amsterdam, Cologne, Zurich, 
Milan, Rome, Monte Carlo, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Oslo (four times), 
Stockholm, London, Paris, Arnheim, and elsewhere. Several of these 
appearances were with symphony orchestras and proved so successful 
that he was immediately re-engaged for next year. 

Since the practical, and perhaps ultimate, test of the work of the 
school rests with the extent and quality of such students' achieve- 
ments both within and outside of the Institute, it is important to bear 
in mind this diversified list of "professional" performances with all 
its attendant implications of progress and development. 


THE CURTIS INSTITUTE will continuc to sponsor Mr. Temianka 
in a second season of concertizing in both Europe and this 
country. During October and November, he will appear in recitals in 
Chicago, Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere. Mr. Temi- 
anka's European tour for the season of 1930-31 will open at the end 
of December with an appearance with the Orchestre Symphoniqtie of 
Paris, under the direction of Pierre Monteux. During January, he will 
give a series often recitals in Italy, followed by a number of concerts in 
Holland and an appearance with the Concertgebouw Orchestra of 
Amsterdam, conducted by Willem Mengelberg. During February, 



Mr. Temianka is to play more than fifteen times in Norway and Sweden, 
appearing as a soloist with the symphony orchestras of Stockholm, 
and Goteborg, Sweden, and of Bergen, Norway (two times). In early 
March he will play with the Cologne Symphony Orchestra, conducted 
by Professor Hermann Abendroth, and will give recitals in Rotterdam, 
Amsterdam, Leiden, and a number of other neighboring cities. The 
month of April will be spent concertizing in Spain. 

By way of amplifying this policy of assisting young artists, The 
Curtis Institute has also completed arrangements for Tibor de Machula, 
Violoncello, to concertize in Europe during the present season of 1930- 
31. Mr. de Machula, a student of Felix Salmond, will be assisted by 
Beniamino Grobani, Baritone, a student of Emilio de Gogorza, and by 
Earl Fox, Accom-panist, a student of Harry Kaufman. 

Many professional positions have been secured by Curtis Institute 
students. Fifteen students in the Voice Department have signed 
contracts with The Philadelphia Grand Opera Companv. The 
tentative plan for cooperation between the Institute and this company 
provides for the presentation of eighteen operas, with twenty-one 
students filling eighty-six roles. 

Eight students have been accepted by Leopold Stokowski for 
entrance to The Philadelphia Orchestra. One of these, Edna Phillips, 
a student of Carlos Salzedo, is to be First Harpist and, incidentally, 
the first woman to be admitted to the ranks of the orchestra. The 
others to be accepted are Mayer Simkin, Violin, a student of Mr. 
MeifF; Paull Ferguson, Viola, a student of Mr. Bailly; Frank Miller, 
Violoncello, a student of Mr. Salmond; Oscar Zimmerman, Double 
Bass, a student of Mr. Torello; Robert Bloom, Oboe, a student of Mr. 
Tabuteau; Robert McGinnis, Clarinet, a student of Mr. Cailliet; and 
Melvin Headman, Triijnpet, a student of Mr. Cohen. 

This brings the total of students entering The Philadelphia Orchestra 
directly from The Curtis Institute up to fifteen. Twelve other mem- 
bers of the orchestra have studied at the Institute, thus making a grand 
total of twenty-seven. One student has gone to The Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra, and a number of former students continue to be 
members of symphony orchestras in New York, St. Louis, Cincinnati, 

and elsewhere. 



Additions have also been made to the list of those students who have 
secured excellent church and choir positions. The most recent ap- 
pointment has been that of Robert Cato, a student of Mr. Farnam, to 
the double post of organist and choirmaster of Old Christ Church of 


To OUR NEWEST Faculty members we extend warm greetings. 
Among additions to our staff of instructors are Mieczyslaw Munz, 
Piano; Alexander Hilsberg, Violin; Louis de Santis, Clarinet; Simone 
Belgiorni, Trofnbone; Eleanor Meredith, Solfege; and Catherine Little- 
field, Dancing. Former teachers who have returned are Lucile Law- 
rence, Harp; Placido de Montaliu, Eurhythmies, Spanish, and Platform 
Deportment; and Ilsa Reimisch, Coaching. Mary Q. Shumway will 
take over all of the German classes in The Academic Department. 
There is also to be an Academic Tutor for the elementary and inter- 
mediate education of students under sixteen years of age. 


WITH THIS issue of October 1930, Overtones embarks upon the 
second year of its young life. It dedicates itself to the recording 
of the numerous and varied activities of the Institute community. 
But in addition, it wishes to carry on its interesting and valuable 
function of serving as a medium of expression on subjects relating to 
music and musicians. It is hoped that the faculty members will 
continue their generous contribution of articles of interest and profit to 
us all, drawing on that vast fund of experience and knowledge which 
is theirs. But members of our student group are urged equally to 
join them in expressing ideas and viewpoints in a way that will make 
for common interest in the great art and study which occupies our 
attention and eff^orts here. Overtones wishes to serve increasingly as 
the voice of all those who have something to say and which the rest 
of us will enjoy hearing. 


Professor Leopold Auer 


UR BELOVED Profcssor Auer gone! At the age of 85 he 
died in Germany where he had been spending the summer. 
Those who knew him as a man and artist realize what this 
loss means to the world. 

Professor Auer was born in Hungary. He studied first at the 
Vienna Conservatory and later with Joachim. Before he reached the 
age of twenty, Leopold Auer was appointed Conductor of the Dussel- 
dorf Orchestra, and later he occupied a similar post in Hamburg. In 
1868 he became Court Violinist at St. Petersburg (Leningrad) and held 
this post continuously until he w^as compelled to leave Russia because 
of political upheavals. He succeeded Henry Wieniawski as Professor 
at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and during a part of this period 
was also Conductor of the Imperial Music Association. His fame as 
a concert violinist spread rapidly over Europe where he was acclaimed 
as one of the leading violinists of the age. 

Leopold Auer left St. Petersburg in 1917 and, after a brief visit to 
Scandinavia where he went to concertize, he came to America early 
in 1918. Here he made an extended tour of the principal cities, after 
which he devoted himself to teaching in the City of New York. He 
became an American citizen at the age of 81. 

Professor Auer was an outstanding figure in the musical world. 
Together with Anton Rubinstein, who founded the great Imperial 
Music Schools of Russia, Professor Auer was an important factor in 
the development of classic music, its promotion and realization. In 
the violinistic world, the rays of his glorious past still illumine our 
present artistic horizon, for he has left us exponents of his great tradi- 
tions in such figures as Elman, Zimbalist, and Heifetz. There are 
many others who benefited by his far reaching artistic influence, and 
so we feel that something very precious has been taken from us. I, 






too, had the privilege of being personally and musically associated 
with the great master. As early as 1898, I met Professor Auer in St. 
Petersburg — and I shall never forget my delight in playing with him 
in a chamber music concert. 

After many, many years, good fortune brought him to us and our 
Institute, and I found him unchanged personally and artistically, even 
greater and still more lovable than in his younger days. Little 
wonder that the loss of the artist and man makes us revolt against 
human fate, for men like Professor Auer should never die. They 
should live forever. Leopold Auer will live — in our memory! 


The Curtis Institute of JS/lusic 


uiTE simply, then, there is an Institute of Music in Phil- 
adelphia, a school where students are being taught the art 
of music. The Egyptians had a school, whereon Pythago- 
ras built a science for the Greeks; and Aristoxenos had a 
school, out of which these Greeks wrought music of an incredible 
purity and expressiveness. The science and the art of the mastery 
of music were in these schools immensely conceived, and from them 
the long line emerged, teacher and pupil. 

So music grew and swelled into a paean. In one concert, over ten 
thousand singers took part. Music was indissolubly merged with 
poetry and legend. The ethos of the people of each Greek state was 
distinguishable in the music which bore their name. Mood and char- 
acter were interpreted and even governed through it. Music was, 
indeed, the greatest motivating power in their existence, and the fair 
glory of Greece gives token of its magic. 

But later, music began to be set apart, to be divorced from the life 
of the people. Poetry was essayed without it. The Asiatic influ- 
ence encroached and the schools were disintegrated. Folk were 
mystified at this complexity and found no joy in the broken sounds. 
Hellas became mute. 

So the early world grew dim and the chorus was hushed. The 
lyre was broken. The pipe was stilled. Singers forgot their songs 
and none wrought new ones. Everywhere music lost her speech, and 
no one remembered her name. But the need was inherent and an 
echo remained. 

Ages later, the need was a crying thing in a man who sought the 
echo and heard it. He made a name for it and told his brother. 
They spoke, and the song grew. Ancient scrolls were unearthed; the 
runes were deciphered; the tale was retold. In the telling, the modal 



system of the Greeks was somewhat rearranged — but the relationship 
and the tightness were discerned. Quietly people began to build. 

Another school was established, and the line again emerged, 
teacher and pupil. The world responded and many schools grew 
strong and full of the new-old beauty. Folk danced and sang and the 
earth became lovelier. So, singly and isolated, the various lines 
came down to our time and finally to this school in Philadelphia. 

Now there have been schools wherein the lines met and crossed. 
Here, in Philadelphia, is a school where Pythagoras and Aristoxenos 
stand side by side, no longer rivals but purposed to a common end. 
The Netherland and the Roman schools are but a shelf distant. The 
student here finds the music of Brahms and Wagner together upon the 
one table. While a strange new magic brings Franck into the room. 

In other days there was only one artist in a school. Here many 
masters are gathered in one bond and under a single roof, giving their 
unique contributions for the greater strengthening and broadening of 
their pupils. 

Here is a temple and workshop wherein that which has value is 
not the coin of the realm but talent and devotion alone. And herein 
is that ideal concert room which each student had one day dreamed of 
entering. Within these walls he hears the masterworks of the world 
recreated with such comprehension and flowing beauty that he is 
overwhelmed and touched in the quick inner part. As he goes out 
into the night, he often walks alone, profoundly moved and thankful 
that the discipleship of such masters has been granted him. 

Inspired by these magical interpretations, the pupil is led to find 
new powers in himself, and, under the guidance and fellowship of 
these artists, eventually brings his contribution to fruition. Where- 
upon the outer world is made available to him through participation 

([13 1 


in concerts and operas, so that he may find, still under the sensitive 
tutelage of his masters, the experience necessary for the most com- 
plete expression of his art. 

Everywhere within this house of Renaissance a splendid camara- 
derie prevails, but it is at its full best in the long, low-ceilinged dining 
hall. In this room studies are put by. At a table some world-famed 
artist sits over his coffee and, to a group of fascinated students, tells of 
strange adventures in the remotest corners of the earth or recalls his 
own student days. One hears directly of what Brahms did or said, 
and of Rubinstein and Joachim. The associations built in this friendly 
room go deep and strong into the remembrance. 

And finally there is that sense of affection, of belonging to this 
school, which the young artist bears with him out into the world. 
There is that privilege of carrying on the tradition and the high pur- 
pose which have been handed down from the earliest dawn of music. 

So here the lines have converged, teachers and pupils; and in their 
midst are the dreamer and founder of this school, and the master- 
worker, who together have made it possible. 

Quite simply, then, there is this Curtis Institute of Music in Phil- 
adelphia. It is a symbol and a commentary upon what may be 
achieved by the few, and they working together to release the spirit 
of man, that he may view himself and remember his heritage of the 
expression of beauty, and that he may know the deep, utter joy of the 
telling of it. 


A Letter from Camderij Nlaine 


HEN A GROUP of studcnts who have studied incessantly for 
an extended period of time pause finally for a breathing 
spell, it is but natural that their thoughts should turn to 
review what they have done. Thus, in the name of my 
fellow students and myself, I am taking this opportunity of writing 
to the one who has guided and helped us through this past summer — 
giving a brief resume of what we have accomplished, and at the same 
time expressing our heartfelt thanks to the ones who have made this 
period of work possible for us. 

We began the season with a flourish — everyone buckled down to 
study with an enthusiasm that was astonishing. This spirit was 
buoyed up by Madame Luboshutz who promptly adjusted her idea of 
"class concerts" to a series of "musicales" given at her cottage every 
Sunday evening and who in this way not only held an incentive for 
study before us but enabled us to build a nucleus on which to work. 
The concerts were invariably attended by a large group which in- 
cluded Mr. and Mrs. Hofmann, members of the summer colony, and 
students of The Curtis Institute. There were eight concerts in all, 
arranged so that each student played at least twice. Madame Lubo- 
shutz performed also at two of the musicales, playing one programme 
of three Mozart Sonatas, assisted by her son Boris Goldowsky at the 
piano, and in her second recital presenting a long programme which 
featured the Tschaikowsky Concerto. Some of the compositions which 
were played by the students included Concertos by Dohnanyi, Respighi, 
Elgar, Sibelius, Paganini, and Brahms, as well as a number of sonatas 
and shorter compositions. 

As a fitting climax to the summer's activities, five of our students 
performed at a benefit concert for the Rockport (Maine) Library. 
These were Celia Gomberg, Judith Poska, William Harms, Josef 
Levine, and Eugene Helmer. The concert was a marked success and 
the audience which filled the Town Hall of Rockport was generous in 
its appreciative demand for encores from each performer, 



Lest our study be too continuous, Madame Luboshutz and Mr. and 
Mrs. Hofmann arranged dances and excursions for us which proved 
enjoyable in every way and really constituted a stimulant for the 
accomplishment of our work. 

In conclusion, we wish to express our thanks to Mrs. Bok who has 
made this summer of achievement possible to us all, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Hofmann for their kind interest and help in our work, and to our dear 
teacher whose inspiration and guidance has made this summer not 
only one of accomplishment but also the most wonderful vacation 
we have ever experienced. 


Summer Activities 

jjHE POLICY of summer study in vacation surroundings for 
talented students of The Curtis Institute of Music proved so 
successful in previous seasons that it was continued during 
the summer months just ended. Many academic and pro- 
fessional institutions entirely suspend their activities during this 
summer recess, while certain others offer special summer courses of in- 
struction in their usual school surroundings or in one specially chosen 
locality elsewhere. The unusual thing about the policy of The Curtis 
Institute is that instruction is not carried on in its buildings in Phila- 
delphia nor in any one particular provisional summer residence; in- 
stead, students follow their teachers wherever the latter choose to 
sojourn — whether in England, France, or Italy, or attractive moun- 
tain, coast, and lake resorts in this country. Vacations in restful 
and varied surroundings are thus made possible, without the necessity 
of the long and sometimes disastrous interruption of several months in 
the intensive and specialized courses of study carried on during the 
major part of the year. At the same time, the change of scene and 
the somewhat unusual opportunities for recreation and exercise make 
for a concentrated effort which proves of great value to the student 
when he returns to the crowded activities of the winter season. 

This year instruction was given by Madame Sembrich, Mr. Hof- 
mann, [Mr. de Gogorza, Miss van Emden, Mr. Connell, Madame 
Luboshutz, Mr. Saperton, Mr. Bailly, Mr. Salmond, Mr. Bachmann, 
Mr. Salzedo, Mr. Scalero, and Mr. Mlynarski in an international 
setting which included such varied places of residence as Camden, Seal 
Harbor, and Sorrento, in Maine; Bolton on Lake George, Woodstock, 
Chautauqua, and New York City, in New York; Williamstown, 
Massachusetts; London, England; Paris, France; Montestrutto, Val 
d'Aosta, Italy; and Warsaw and Kracow, Poland. 

The state of Maine proved a popular gathering place for several 
of the Curtis groups of students. In Camden there was an active col- 
ony made up of Mrs. Bok, Mr. and Mrs. Hofmann, and Madame Lubo- 
shutz along with summer students of Mr. Hofmann and Madame 
Luboshutz. The accompanying photograph of Mr. Hofmann's group 




suggests that chess may have provided dangerous competition for 
those who were studying the piano with him. William Harms is the 
opponent with the preoccupied expression, while those standing are 
Joseph Levine and Nadia Reisenberg. 

With Madame Luboshutz there were Judith Poska, Celia Gomberg, 
James Bloom, and Eugene Orloff. Yvonne Krinsky and Eugene 
Helmer were their accompanists. Mr. Bloom's account of the group's 
activities appears elsewhere in this issue. Both groups of students 
participated in the series of Community Concerts at Camden and in a 
benefit concert in the Town Hall of nearby Rockport, which were 
attended with much interest by the summer colonists of both resorts. 
In the Rockport concert, which took place on September lo, William 
Harms played a group of piano compositions by Debussy, Chopin, 
and Delibes-Dohnanyi; Celia Gomberg, music for the violin by Wien- 
iawski, Kreisler, Godowsky, Ravel, and Aulin; Joseph Levine, piano 




pieces by M. Dvorsky, Debussy, and Balakirew; and Judith Poska, 
a group for the violin by Wagner-Wilhelmj, Bach-Kreisler, Gershwin, 
and Saint-Saens— Ysaye. Eugene Helmer was their accompanist. 



In Sorrento, Maine, Mr. Bailly worked with the Swastika Quar- 
tette, its members being Gama Gilbert, Benjamin Sharlip, Max Aron- 
off, and Orlando Cole. Leonard Mogill also studied there. This 
chamber music organization was one of the most active of the summer 
groups, giving a total of nine concerts: two in Sorrento, in the series 
of Community Concerts, a concert in Camden, one each in Castine and 
Sullivan, two in Northeast Harbor, and two in Seal Harbor, one of 
the last mentioned being given in the home of our own Mrs. Fels. 
These concerts, presented before distinguished audiences, were 
enthusiastically received and aroused great interest in our Institute. 

Seal Harbor, Maine, was the scene of harp study with Mr. Salzedo. 
Class lessons there were followed by such unconventional recreation as 
the "Harpistic Bull Fight" glimpsed in the accompanying photograph. 
The harp is at rest and stands for the Toril (Bull Stable). The poster is 
authentic and comes from San Sebastian, Spain, where Mr. Salzedo 
witnessed a bull fight in July. Mr. Salzedo is the "harpistic" torea- 
dor; Alice Chalifoux, the Bull! In the improvised loggia, which is 
made up of one of Lucile Lawrence's Spanish shawls, are, seated: 
Isabel Ibach, Mary Griffith, Victoria Murdock Bloom, and Reva 
Reatha; standing: Flora Greenwood and Edna Phillips. 

Slightly southward, in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Miss Harriet 
van Emden had with her as summer students Selma Amansky, Paceli 
Diamond, Kathryn Dean, Irene Singer, and Esther Cohen. Joseph 
Rubanoff was their accompanist. 

The largest number of students chose the state of New York for 
their summer's sojourn. As during several seasons in the past, 
Madame Sembrich carried on instruction of voice students at her beau- 
tiful estate in Bolton on Lake George. With her were Henriette 
Horle, Natalie Bodanskaya, Genia Wilkomirska, Mildred Cable, 
Edna Corday, and Ruth Gordon. Sylvan Levin served as their coach 
and accompanist. The following photograph suggests the agree- 








able informality of tea-time at "Bay View". Benefit concerts were 
given in Bolton, by Miles. Bodanskaya, Gordon, and Corday, and in 
Lake George, by Miles. Horle, Wilkomirska, and Bodanskaya. 
Among other things, students sang the entire Act I of Hansel and 
Gretel. Several of Madame Sembrich's students also sang at a recep- 
tion given bv Adolph S. Ochs for Commander Richard Byrd; the latter 
reciprocated by taking two of them for a flight in his airplane. 

In Chautauqua, New York, Horatio Connell spent a busy season 
with a group of students made up of Rose Bampton, Daniel Healy, 
Arthur Holmgren, Eugene Ramey, Alfred De Long, Albert Mahler, 
and Florence Irons. Elizabeth Westmoreland was their accompanist. 
The list of their activities is long and indicates many achievements. 
In the series of presentations of The Chautauqua Opera Association 




given in the new Norton Memorial Hall, Albert Mahler sang the 
leading tenor role, Lionel, in Martha; Rose Bampton, the role of Siebel 
in Faust; while the three parts in the cast of Debussy's The Prodigal Son 
were taken by Miss Bampton (Lia), Daniel Healy (Azael), and Arthur 
Holmgren (Simeon), in two performances. The operas were con- 
ducted by Albert Stoessel. 

Oratorios and orchestral concerts were also given, in the Ampi- 
theatre seating 6,000 persons. Here Miss Bampton sang Gounod's 
ma lyre immortelle^ accompanied by the Chautauqua Symphony 
Orchestra, Georges Barrdre conducting, while Mr. Holmgren gave "It 
is Enough" from The Elijah. With Howard Hanson conducting the 



orchestra, Miss Irons sang Kitorna Vincitor from Aida\ with Albert 
Stoessel conducting, Mr. Healy was heard in Siegmund^ s Love Song. 
The latter also sang the tenor part of The Messiah with orchestra in a 
gala performance given by the Chautauqua Choir augmented by five 
visiting choirs. The Kigoletto Quartette was presented by Irons, 
Bampton, Mahler, and Clarence Reinert (a former student of the 
Institute), at a concert given by the music departments, while Irons, 
Bampton, Healy, and Holmgren sang quartettes and solos at a recital 
before the Chautauqua Woman's Club. 




Mr. Connell himself appeared as soloist with the Chautauqua 
Symphony Orchestra, Howard Hanson conducting, singing two 
Handel arias from Acis and Galatea and Se7nele. 

In New York City Mr. Saperton had with him as piano students 
Freda Pastor, Jorge Bolet, Jean Marie Robinault, Rosita Escalona, 
Marga Wustner, Lilian Batkin, Florence Fraser, and Irene Peckham. 

Students of M*-. Bachmann in Woodstock, New York, were Lily 
Matison, Ladisk us Steinhardt, and Abe Burg. 

In London, England, Mr. Salmond continued to instruct Tibor de 
Machula. Mr. de Gogorza was in Paris, France, with Agnes Davis 
and Conrad Thibault. Louis Vyner passed an interesting summer 
studying conducting with Mr. Mlynarksi in Warsaw and Kracow, 
Poland. An unusual event was his conducting of a public perform- 
ance of the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra, the first instance of an 
American conducting in Poland. This concert, which was also broad- 
cast to a radio audience, proved to be an undoubted success and Mr. 
Vyner's efforts won high praise from the musicians who heard him. 

High in Northern Italy, at the foot of picturesque Val d'Aosta, 
Mr. Scalero passed the summer months in his historic and beautiful 
castello in Montestrutto. One gets a glimpse of a bit of it in the 
following photograph of himself and his group of composition 
students, included in which are Sam Barber, John Bitter, Gian Carlo 
Menotti, Eleanor Meredith, and John Moffitt. 

Two organ students, Robert Cato and Alexander McCurdy, also 
were in Europe, spending much of the time with Mr. Farnam. The 
latter gave two recitals in Paris under the patronage of Les Amis de 
rOrgue, one in the church of Sainte-Clotilde and one in the 
ancient church of St. Germain des Pres. Mr. Farnam, as the "cele- 
brated American organist", won high praise in the Paris newspapers. 




Regarded as a whole, it was a summer of high achievement, many 
of the benefits of which will doubtlessly continue to be manifested dur- 
ing the coming winter season. 


Check List of New Books in the Library 

THE THEATRE. Three Thousand Years of Dratna, Acting and Stage- 
craft. By Sheldon Cheney. Longmans, Green and Co. An invaluable 
one- volume survey of the theatre from Dionysus to the latest ' 'machine- ; 

age" developments of our day. Excellent analyses of contemporary 
backgrounds and currents, written in a sprightly and engaging style. 

THE RUSSIAN THEATRE. Its Character and History, With Especial- 
Reference to the Revolutionary Period. By Rene Fiildp-Miller and Joseph 
Gregor. Translated by Paul England. George G. Harrap and Co., Ltd., 
London. A superb and important book, containing 130 pages of text 
discussing the historical and philosophical aspects of the subject, 
followed by some 400 half- and full-page illustrations in colour and 
half-tone which in completeness and originality outdistance anything , 

hitherto published on the contemporary theatre. A book whose | 

influence will be incalculable. j 

THEATRE LIGHTING. A Manual of the Stage Sivitchboard. With a 

foreword by David Belasco. By Louis Hartmann. D. Apple ton and Co. 

A practical and yet fascinating discussion of the recent development I 

of stage lighting, detailing famous methods and implements of the 

stage electrician, the role of color in the modern stage setting, and [ 

much other information. 

FOOTLIGHTS ACROSS AMERICA. Toivards a National Theater. By \ 

Kenneth MacGoivan. Harcourt, Brace and Co. An attempted estimate of ' 

the extent, nature, and significance of the non-commercial theater of 
America, by a prominent authority. Historical considerations are 
followed by a discussion of Drama in education, aesthetic aspects 
of the local theater and new native drama, and practical glances at 
economics and organization. 

THEATRES. By Joseph Urban. Theatre Art, Inc., New York. Vastly ; 

stimulating illustrations, photographs, and plans of theatres already 1 

executed or designed by Mr. Urban: The Ziegfeld Theatre, the Para- 
mount Theatre, a Metropolitan Opera House, the Reinhardt Theatre, 
the Jewish Art Theatre, and an ideal Music Centre which at once 
arouses yearnings for its realization in some enterprising city. 

Nlusical Calendar 

October 15-31 

i6 — "Aida", Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Emil Mlynarski conducting, 

Academy of Music, evening. 
17 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski conducting, Academy of Music, 

18 — Fritz Kreisler, Violin, Academy of Music, afternoon. 
18 — Philadelphia Orchestra, evening. 

ID — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, Erich Kleiber conducting, 

Academy of Music, evening. 
xz — Independent Italian Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening. 
2.3 — "Le Jongleur de Notre Dame", Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Eugene 

Goossens conducting, evening. 
Z4 — Philadelphia Orchestra, with Ossip Gabrilowitsch, Piano, afternoon. 
Z5 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

x6— Jascha Simkin, Violin, Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., evening. 

x6 — Beniamino Gigli, Tenor, Penn Athletic Club, evening. 

Z7 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

z8 — "La Gioconda", New York Metropolitan Opera Company, Academy of Music, 

X9 — Philadelphia Chamber String Simfonietta, Belle vue-Stratf or d, evening. 
30 — "Pagliacci" and "Gianni Schicchi", Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, 

Emil Mlynarski conducting, evening. 
31 — Philadelphia Orchestra, afternoon. 

November 1-15 

I — Philadelphia Orchestra, evening. 

3 — Lynnwood Farnam, Organ recital, St. James' Church, evening. 

3 — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, evening. 

4 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

5 — Winifred Christie, Piano, Academy of Music, evening. 

6 — "Lucia di Lammermoor", Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Mlynarski 

conducting, evening. 
6 — Don Cossack Russian Male Chorus, Penn Athletic Club, evening. 
7 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Alfred Wallenstein, Violoncello, afternoon. 
8 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Wallenstein, evening. 


9 — Georges Barrere Little Symphony, Penn Athletic Club, evening. 
10 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Wallenstein, evening. 
10 — Lynnwood Farnam, Organ recital, St. James' Church, evening. 
II — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening, 
iz — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, afternoon. 
13 — Don Cossack Russian Male Chorus, Philadelphia Forum, evening. 
13 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, afternoon. 

13— "Boris Godunof", Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Mlynarski, evening. 
14 — Philadelphia Orchestra, afternoon. 
14 — Jose Iturbi, Philadelphia Forum, evening. 
15 — Philadelphia Orchestra, evening. 




The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 




Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 1 November, 1930 





How I Became a Viola Player Louis Bailly 33 

Faculty Activities 37 

Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts 38 

Opera 38 

Chamber Music 46 

Concert Course Recitals 46 

Radio Broadcasts 47 

Recital by Henri Temianka 48 

Other Events 49 

Glimpses of the Institute: 

VIII. The Collection of Rare Instruments 51 

New Books in the Library 53 

Musical Calendar 56 


Louis Bailly, Head of the Departments of Viola and Chamber M.usic. . . 32. 
Artist Students of The Curtis Institute Who Participated in Per- 
formances of Gianni Schicchi and Pagliacci 40, 41, 43, 45 

Rare Violins and Violas from The Curtis Institute Collection. . 50 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtonei 
Copyright 1930 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 

LOUIS BAILLY, Head of the Deparhnents of Viola and Chamber Music 


How I Became a Viola Player 


Editor's Note: In the November igig issue ??/ Overtones there appeared an 
Open Letter froiti the Director of the Institute inviting replies from the 
77iembers of the faculty to the question as to what determined their choice 
of instrument and field of activity in music. In the following article, M.r. 
Badly, Head of the Departments of Viola and Chamber Music, provides 
an interesting account of his own experience. 

HE ORIENTALS, says Michdct, the French historian, hold the 
belief that each human being is born into that situation in 
life which will be necessary to his development, and that 
from the cardinal point of birth begins the slow evolution 
which, modified by circumstances, favorable or adverse, lived and 
impressed upon the youthful mind, forms the identity or personality of 
the individual. 

From this point of view, should anyone ask me why I chose the 
viola as the vehicle of my musical expression, I should be inclined to 
reply: "I didn't choose it deliberately, myself; others suggested it to 
me, I recognized the reasonableness of the suggestion, and determina- 
tion and the desire to do more than had been done before, for and with 
the viola, completed the work." For I must explain at once that I 
began my serious musical studies with a violin in my childish hands. 

As I look back in the attempt to analyze the influences which 
formed, and at one point completely turned, the current of my artistic 
life, I see first an old Flemish city, the city of my birth, Valenciennes. 
Again I behold, shining in the grey light of the pale sun of the "North 
Country", the city's massive ramparts and towers, the deep moat, the 



great gates, creations of the genius of Vauban. I recall the busy, 
simple life of the inhabitants; a people of very mixed race; strata as it 
were, deposited by the all too frequent invasions and occupations of 
Ostrogoth, Spaniard, German, English, and French; a life in my boy- 
hood, quite self-contained, almost untouched by outside influence, 
still retaining a quite mediaeval character. 

Here still persisted the town crier, the fairs, the fetes, the quaint 
customs of olden times. In my mind's eye clearly do I yet see the 
portly, flour-covered baker who, trumpet in hand, patrolled the streets, 
announcing to the populace the important fact that his famous cheese 
cakes were just out of the oven; or I recall, with a thrill, the penny 
shows, high, high up in some old house, where Punch and Judy or 
delightful fairy tales were enacted; or, when older, the provincial 
theater where one might, and in fact everyone did, of a Sunday, spend 
ten sous and the hours from four in the afternoon until one at night, 
gorging one's soul to repletion upon a series of representations, tragic, 
comic, and musical vaudeville, all in delightful succession ! Incredible 
it seems to me now, but — "c'^'j-/- la jeunesse'\ not only of myself, but 
of the soul of a people. Or, more exciting still, there was the '^fete 
des Incas" , a great outdoor parade or carnival, dating back to the 
period of the Spanish occupation and to the years when the marvelous 
wealth of the New World poured into the treasury of Spain. Nor 
must I forget the song contests, real Meistersinger fests, which were 
held by the numerous choral societies, not only of the city but from 
the environing towns, inhabited almost exclusively by the coal miners. 
Contests sometimes were carried on with other singing clubs as far 
distant as Paris; what an excitement when the city's society returned 
with a grand prix! What speeches, what laurel wreaths, what general 
rejoicing, and what champagne! 

It is doubtless at the risk of appearing long-winded that I mention 
these influences in a young boy's life and environment, but I do so, 
because I now recognize in them all the irrepressible impulse of the 
people toward artistic expression and a civic joy in such expression 
whether in drama, sculpture, painting or music. 



This was the atmosphere surrounding each child of the city, requir- 
ing him, in addition to his other studies, to devote a given number of 
hours per week to classes in some art; the most apt pupils becoming in 
a way the wards of the city, educated free of charge and encouraged 
by prizes, scholarships, and the great public interest and esteem. The 
results of such fostering of youthful talent may today be read, bv him 
who washes, in the long lists of names of illustrious children of 
Valenciennes inscribed in now dingy letters upon the more dingv walls 
of the Conservatory. There may be seen, for instance, the names of 
J. Froissart, historian of old France; Watteau, the divine painter — if 
onem.ay say so, the Mozart of the palette; J. B. Carpeaux, the sculptor, 
successor to the style of Michel Angelo and direct predecessor of 
August Rodin; and many another name whose fame is entirely French 
and not international, save that I might mention Rachel, the great 
tragedienne whose star still shines undimmed by time. What wonder 
then, that ambitious and gifted youth felt the impulse, yes, the neces- 
sity, to exert itself? — 

So it was with myself, working from small to greater efforts, until 
w4th the coveted scholarship for the Paris Conservatory, I found 
myself, a very young provincial lad, actually embarked upon my life 
in the musical world of Paris, the Metropolis. 

Here at last came the turning point in my life work, for it was mv 
very great good fortune to come under the notice and to wan the inter- 
est and friendship of a rare man and a superb musician — Andre Mes- 
sager, the conductor and composer. He it was who first suggested 
to me and then strongly urged upon me the study of the viola, at that 
time an instrument w^hose possibilities were hardly recognized and 
whose special technique was still to be developed. Messager, with 
a composer's instinct and the practical experience of a conductor, 
foresaw w^hat the viola was capable of becoming, and feeling that my 
physique w^as especially adapted to the larger instrument, persuaded 
me to make the change from the violin. It was a radical step for me 
to take, but I decided upon it, even against the advice of almost every- 
one I knew. 

- 11353 

O V E R T O 

I had not long been engaged in this new study when I began to 
realize that for the present at least, the greatest field for the viola lay 
in chamber music, and after long deliberation I decided to burn more 
bridges behind me, to resign my position in various orchestras, and to 
make chamber music as well as the viola my special work for life. 

I also realized that there was practically no special technique 
already developed for the viola student and that each one had been 
more or less blindly going his own way with the result that the special 
character of the instrument had not been fully grasped. Studying the 
instrument itself, its larger form and particular problems for bow and 
fingers, its tonal qualities and capabilities, as well as limitations, I 
came to the conclusion that the old name for the instrument, "Tenor' ' , 
was well taken, and that as a complement to the soprano of the violin, 
the voice of the viola should be developed as a tenor voice and that 
this could best be done by combining the left hand velocity of the 
violinist with the gripping bow of the 'cellist. 

Owing to the large size of many of the best violas, the working out 
of this method presented many difficulties and problems. However, 
I kept to my task, and recalling that no others than Mozart, Beethoven, 
and even Paganini had been forerunners in studying and playing the 
viola, I hoped in time to arrive at something solid in developing the 
viola technique. 

If I have in part succeeded in going beyond the former "violinistic" 
manner of playing the instrument, I shall be rewarded, for Art is very, 
very long; it progresses not by leaps and bounds, but by small steps; 
and if, as one who was but lately with us urged, I can leave the viola 
world a little better than I found it, I shall have accomplished some- 
thing of the task I set myself a score or more years ago! 


Faculty Activities 


i|N NOVEMBER 17, the First of this season's series of Faculty 
Recitals will be presented by Miss Harriet van Emden, 
Soprano. Following this, on November 2.4, Mr. Carlos 
Salzedo and Miss Lucile Lawrence will participate in a 
joint recital of music for the Harp. Later recitals will be those by 
Abram Chasins, Pianist, on December i, and by Mieczyslaw Miinz, 
Pianist, on November 9. 


THE THIRD day of Mrs. E. S. Coolidge's annual Festival, held this 
year on October 14, 15, and 16, in Chicago, Illinois, was marked 
by the performance of Mr. Carlos Salzedo 's Preambule et Jeux for Ha.rp 
Principale, Flute, Oboe, Bassoon, Horn, and String Quintet. The 
performance, which was the first public one in this country, was con- 
ducted by the composer. The first performance in this country 
occurred in Casimir Hall of The Curtis Institute of Music, on the 
evening of April 7, 1930. 

Mr. Josef Hofmann appeared in Boston, Massachusetts, in a recital 
in Symphony Hall on November 2.. On the 7th, he gave a recital in 
the Eastman Theater in Rochester, New York. On the i6th, he will 
play during the Atwater Kent Broadcasting Hour, in New York City. 
Further appearances during November will be in Detroit, Michigan, 
as a soloist with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra on Nov. 2.7th 
and 2.8th. 

Mr. Salzedo and Madame Renee Longy-Miquelle participated in 
the Memorial Concert which was given in Jordan Hall in Boston on 
November 3 for the late Georges Longy, Madame Miquelle's father, 
whose retirement, a few years ago, marked the end of several decades 
of service as First Oboe in the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and whose 
death occurred last May. 


Student Activities 


i!HE FIRST of the Students' Concerts in Casimir Hall for the 
season of 1930-31 was presented by Judith Poska, Violmist, 
graduate student of Madame Lea Luboshutz, on the evening 
of November 12.. Her programme consisted of George 
Frederick Handel's Sonata in E major, Anton Dvorak's Concerto in A 
minor. Opus 53, and a group of shorter compositions including the 
Preislied from Die Me ister singer, by Wagner-Wilhelmj, Praeludium, 
by Bach-Kreisler, Short Story, by Gershwin-Dushkin, and Valse Ca- 
price, by Saint-Saens — Ysaye. Miss Poska was assisted at the Piano 
by Theodore Saidenberg, a former student in Accompanying of Mr. 
Harry Kaufman. 


IN ACCORDANCE with the programme of affiliation between The 
Curtis Institute of Music and The Philadelphia Grand Opera Com- 
pany, artist-students of the Voice Department of the Institute have 
filled professional engagements in the hrst six operas which have been 
produced thus far in the season. 

Verdi's Aida was given on October 16, featuring such internation- 
ally known artists as Cyrena Van Gordon, Anne Roselle, Aroldo 
Lindi, Chief Caupolican, and Ivan Steschenko. In this production, 
Florence Irons, Soprano, sang the role of A Priestess, and Fiorenzo 
Tasso, Tenor, appeared as A Messenger. They are students of Mr. 
Horatio Connell and Mr. Emilio de Gogorza, respectively. £mil 
Mlynarski conducted the performance, while Wilhelm von Wymetal, 
Jr., was Stage Director. 

On October 2.3, Massenet's Le Jongleur de Notre Dame was produced, 
with Mary Garden, Chief Caupolican, and Ivan Steschenko singing 
the principal roles. Supporting these artists were the following 
students of The Curtis Institute: Albert Mahler, Tenor, as A Poet, 
Alfred De Long, Bass, as A Sculptor (both students of Mr. Connell), 
Abraham Robofsky, Baritone, as A Wag, and Benjamin De Loache, 



Baritone, as A Crier Aionk (both students of Mr. de Gogorza). The 
conductor of this opera was Eugene Goossens. 

An unusual combination of Puccini's rollicking one-act comedy, 
Gianni Schicchi, and Leoncavallo's tragic opera, Pagliacci, was pre- 
sented on the evening of October 30. The work of Curtis Institute 
students in these operas proved their most ambitious and successful 
undertaking thus far in the season. With the first of these produc- 
tions, the orchestra was made up of sixty-two musicians selected from 
the personnel of The Curtis Orchestra. The performance was made 
still more notable by the fact that the direction of Gianni Schicchi 
was entrusted to Sylvan Levin, who, on this occasion, made his first ap- 
pearance with The Philadelphia Grand Opera Companv as conductor. 

The cast was distinguished by the presence of Chief Caupolican 
and Ivan Steschenko in the outstanding roles, but practically the en- 
tire balance of the company, some twelve acting and singing parts, 
was successfully undertaken by artist-students of the Institute. Out- 
standing among these supporting roles were those of Lauretta and 
Kinuccio, sung, respectively, by Natalie Bodanskaya, a student of 
Madame Marcella Sembrich, and by Albert Mahler, a student of Mr. 
Horatio Connell. Another conspicuous part was that of Zita, sung 
by Paceli Diamond, a student of Miss Harriet van Emden. Others 
who appeared included Daniel Healv, as Gherardo; Agnes Davis, as 
Nella; Abraham Robofsky, as Betto; Conrad Thibault, as Marco; Hen- 
riette Horle, as La Ciesca; Benjamin De Loache, as Spiuelloccio; Alfred 
De Long, as Atnantio; Arthur Holmgren, as Finellino; and Walter 
\ assar, as Guccio. 

The press notices of the following morning, October 31, were uni- 
formly unanimous in their praise and approbation. The following 
excerpts are representative: 

Gianni Schicchi was directed by Syh'an Levin, who showed marked capabihty 
and scored a success, his reception being decidedly cordial when he was called out 
two or three times, with members of the cast. — Philadelphia Bulletin. 

The principal singing roles were those of Lauretta and Kinuccio, these being taken 
by Natalie Bodanskaya and Albert Mahler, respsctively. Both did very well. 



Camera Portrait by Albert Petersen. 

SYLVAN LEVIN, Artist Student Who Conducted "Gianni Schicchi" 



Miss Bodanskaya's rendition of the most elaborate aria in the opera, Oh, tnio hahhino 
caro, was especially good, and Mr. Mahler sang exceedingly well the monologue 
urging the relatives to make use of the skill of Gianni Schicchi in solving their 

problem, and together they gave the principal duet of the opera charmingly 

Mr. Levin conducted with authority and apparently a thorough knowledge of the 
score, which in many places is decidedly "tricky." He did an extremely creditabh 
piece of work in every respect. The large audience was very friendly and demanded 
the recall of the members of the cast many times at the close of the opera. — Philadel- 
phia Public Ledger. 

Natalie Bodanskaya, the Lauretta, displayed a most pleasing and graceful soprano 

of refreshing quality and charm Sylvan Levin, the conductor, received 

special signals of approbation from the cast as well as the audience. — Philadelphia 

The sprightly Puccini comedy was given with robust and rollicking spirit that 
reflected considerable credit upon the stage direction of Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr. 
Both of the operas were excellently mounted and the Puccini piece capitally caught 
the atmosphere of mediaeval Florence .... Natalie Bodanskaya as the daugh- 
ter ... . made an attractive ingenue A feature of this opera was that 

the orchestra was composed of young musicians from the Curtis Orchestra, who 
played with zest and finish under the direction of Sylvan Levin, also of the Institute, 
and making his debut in this capacity on this occasion. He shared the applause. — 
Philadelphia Inquirer. 

The work was presented by artist-stud.nts of the Curtis Institute, with the 
exception of Ivan Steschenko .... and Chief Caupolican. Seldom, if ever, 
have I seen so much action on an operatic stage. All the characters were more than 
adequate of voice and dramatic suitability to their roles. There was a balance of 
grouping, a knowledge of the score, and a general artistic demonstration that showed 
careful rehearsing. All this was set off, of course, against scenic effects of a Theatre 
Guild play, which, with the singers wearing Cyrano noses, gave the undertaking a 

Walter Hampden atmosphere. Miss Bodanskaya sang extremely well 

The orchestra was made up of Curtis students, too, directed by Sylvan Levin, a 
student of conducting and assistant conductor of the company. The orchestra 
showed careful preparation of the work, marshaled by the youthful director who 
knew every note of what he was doing. — Camden Courier. 

Albert Mahler and Natalie Bodanskaya did their roles with good taste. Paceli 

Diamond made an active Zita The expert stage managing of the junior 

von Wvmetal was evident The Curtis Orchestra, under Sylvan Levin, did 

plausible work. It must be remarked that Levin, also a product of the Curtis school, 
conducted with verve. — Philadelphia Evening Star. 

In the performance of Pagliacci which followed, the outstanding 
roles were filled by John Charles Thomas and Aroldo Lindi, of La 
Scala, Milan. Singing with these well-known figures were the fol- 













Cjmerj Portraits h Albert Petersen. 


lowing Curtis Institute artist-students: Helen Jepson, as Nedda; Al- 
bert Mahler, as Beppe; and Conrad Thibault, as Silvio. The latter is 
a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza, while the first two are pupils of 
Mr. Horatio Connell. This opera was conducted by Mr. Emil 
Mlynarski, with the usual orchestra of The Philadelphia Grand 
Opera Company. 

The following are excerpts from press notices of October 31: 

A well merited success was scored by Helen Jepson, who made an attractive and 
appealing Nedda, with a voice of pure soprano quality, adequate as to range, volume, 
and flexibility. Her singing of Che volo d' augelli showed facility and expressive 
understanding. Miss Jepson's manner was easy and her acting good, the scene in 
the miniature theatre being noticeably well done. Conrad Thibault used a light 
baritone of ingratiating quality in pleasing style, as Silvio. — Philadelphia Bulletin. 

Miss Jepson sang very well, especially the beautiful cavatina and the duet with 
Silvio in the same act. Her characterization was unusually fine and she showed a 
decided dramatic talent in a role which calls for a largely assorted range of emo- 
tions Albert Mahler and Conrad Thibault were thoroughly satisfactory, 

the former singing the graceful off-stage serenade of the second act very finely and the 
latter making the most of the vocal opportunities of the role in the scene with Nedda 
in the first act. — Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

The performance also marked the debut of Helen Jepson .... of the Curtis 
Institute. She was a charming Nedda and sang the role with sincerity and emotional 
sympathy. — Philadelphia Record. 

Helen Jepson made her operatic debut in the role of Nedda. Miss Jepson sang 
with great feeling and personally was in pleasing contrast to many who have sung 

the part Albert Mahler sang the Beppe and Conrad Thibault the Silvio 

with the grace and ease that has become familiar to devotees of the company's 
schedule. — Ca?nden Cotirier. 

Details of the production of Donizetti's Lucia di Laimnermoor, on 
November 6th, and Mussorgky's Boris Godounov, on November 13th, 
will be discussed in the next issue of Overtones. During the next four 
weeks, artist-students of The Curtis Institute will continue their pro- 
fessional appearances, in productions to be given of Tosca, on Novem- 
ber 17th, La Traviata, on December 4th, and Thais, on December nth. 






Photographs by Kitbey-Remb'-anil:. 






THE THIRD SEASON of Chamber Music recitals in the Pennsylvania 
Museum of Art at Fairmount, under the direction of Dr. Louis 
Bailly, was opened with the concert which took place on the evening 
of November 9. The opening number, Anton Dvorak's String Quartet in 
F major, Opus 96 ("American"), was performed by the Swastika 
Quartet, whose personnel continues to be Gama Gilbert and Benjamin 
Sharlip, Violins, Max Aronoff, Viola, and Orlando Cole, Violoncello. 
Assisted by Leonard Mogill, Viola, the same ensemble group followed 
with Johannes Brahms' String Quintet, Opus 115. The final work 
on the programme was a modern one, written in 1917, by Francis 
Poulenc .... Kapsodie Negre, in ^Yc moYcmtnts: Prelude, Rondo, 
Honolulu, Pastorale, and Final. This interesting w^ork was sung 
by Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza, 
and played by Jean Marie Robinault, Piano, Ardelle Hookins, Flute, 
James Collis, Clarinet, and the Swastika Quartet. A preliminary 
"dress rehearsal" of this concert, open to the public, was given on the 
afternoon of November 6 in Casimir Hall. 


THE FIRST of this season's course of twenty-five concerts being 
presented by The Curtis Institute before schools, colleges, clubs, 
and similar groups was inaugurated by a recital on October 15 th 
before the Norristown Octave Club, in the Y. W. C. A. Hall of Norris- 
town, Pennsylvania. Those who participated were: Ladislaus Stein- 
hardt, Violinist, a student of Mr. Edwin Bachmann; Conrad Thibault, 
Baritone, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza; and Joseph Rubanoff, 
Accompanist, a student of Mr. Harry Kaufman. 

A second recital was presented on November 14th before Western 
Maryland College, Westminster, Maryland, while further appearances 
in the near future will occur on November i8th, at State Teachers 
College, West Chester, Pennsylvania; on November 19th, before the 
Wednesday Club of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; and on November 2.0th, 
at the University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 




A SERIES of twenty radio concerts will be given this season by The 
Curtis Institute of Music over thirty-one stations of the Columbia 
Broadcasting System. The programmes will be presented by The 
Curtis Orchestra under the baton of Emil Mlynarski, who besides 
occupying the position of conductor of The Philadelphia Grand Opera 
Company is the head of The Curtis Institute Orchestra Department 
and conductor of The Curtis Orchestra; the Swastika Quartet, a 
creation of Dr. Louis Bailly of The Curtis Institute of Music; other 
ensemble groups; and artist-students of the Institute appearing in 
solo performances. 

The concerts, two of which have already been presented, will be 
given on Friday afternoons from 4 o'clock to 4:45 p. m., Eastern 
Standard Time. The programmes will be broadcast from Casimir 
Hall, the concert auditorium of The Curtis Institute of Music. The 
stations broadcasting these recitals are: 

New York Citv WABC Nashville WLAC 

New York City W2.XE Syracuse WFBL 

Philadelphia WCAU Birmingham WBRC 

Baltimore WCAO Detroit WGHP 

Washington WMAL Youngstown WKBN 

Pittsburgh ,,^Jf\? Fort Wavne WOWO 

?os^7- •, ^NAC Asheville WWNC 

Clevelana WHK 

Buffalo WMAK 

Denver KLZ 

Cincinnati WKRC 

Akron WADC n , . , ^- ..t^.^t 

Milwaukee WISN Salt Lake City KDIL 

Chattanooga WDOD kittle Rock KLRA 

& Omaha-Council Bluffs KOIL 

Memphis WREC 

Providence, R. I WEAN 

Oil City WLBW 

Roanoke WDBJ Spokane KFPY 

Providence, R. I WEAN Kansas City, Mo KMBC 

Oil City WLBW Seattle-Tacoma KVI 

The First Radio Programme was broadcast on the afternoon 
of November 7, when The Curtis Orchestra, conducted by £mil 
Mlynarski, played Schubert's Symphony No. 8 ("Unfinished"), in B 
minor, and the Second and Third Movements of Saint-Saens' Concerto 
No. ^, in B minor, Opus 61, for Violin and Orchestra. In this, the 
violin soloist was Judith Poska, a graduate student of Madame 
Lea Luboshutz. 



The Second Programme was presented on November 14. Further 
broadcasts will follow on the 2.1st and the 2.8th of this month. 


As A GRADUATE of The Curtis Institute two seasons ago, Mr. Henri 
Temianka, Violinist, has recently completed a series of important 
European recitals and is about to return to Europe for another concert 
tour which will include numerous appearances with symphony 
orchestras. In this country, Mr. Temianka appeared in recitals in 
Chicago, Illinois, on October 19, Binghamton, New York, on October 
2.0, Philadelphia, on October 2.9, and New York City, on October 30. 
The following are excerpts from his press notices in Philadelphia, 
October 30. 

A talented young violinist came back to the scene of his student days last night 
as a concert artist of considerable importance. Henri Temianka, who gave a recital 
in the foyer of the Academy of Music, is the first graduate of The Curtis Institute of 
Music. Temianka's authority and immaculate technique immediately established 
his talent, but it was not until he reached the selections from modern composers 
that he displayed his real skill, his musical comprehension, and his fine round tone. 
Ravel's Tz.igane is a lusty, barbaric opus which runs the whole gamut of the unre- 
pressed moods and emotions of the gypsy; Temianka fell into the mood of the piece 

and created a series of vivid and bizarre musical pictures In both the 

Mozart Concerto in D major and the Schumann Sonata in A minor, which opened the 
programme, Temianka proved his technical command and thorough musicianship. — 
Philadelphia Record. 

The youthful violinist revealed a technique of the left hand of great fluency, 
and his work in this respect was crystal clear. His tone was of considerable power 
and much sweetness, and his control of the bow arm was masterly. It was in the 
technical numbers that he appeared to the best advantage, especially in the Ravel 
Tzigane, heavily overloaded with ornamentation as it is, and with .... its use 
of all the resources of the instrument. These were done splendidly, but the soloist 
reached the apex of his work of the evening in the brilliant Polonaise of Wieniawski. 
Temianka played it in the brilliant style which it demands, with a fine tone, perfect 
execution of bow and finger, and excellent rhythmic feeling. — Philadelphia Public 

In his recitals in this country, Mr. Temianka was assisted at the 
piano by Yvonne Krinsky, a student in Piano of Madame Isabelle 
Vengerova and in Accompanying of Mr. Harry Kaufman. Her 
playing was also the subject of much praise in printed reviews. 




UNDER the auspices of the American Radiator Corporation, Natalie 
Bodanskaya, Soprano, sang over the National Broadcasting Sys- 
tem's network on the evenings of October 9th and 13rd. 

On October 10 and 11, Rose Bampton, Contralto, a student of Mr. 
Horatio Connell, sang as soloist in Manuel de Falla's El Amor Brujo 
with The Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokow^ski. 
Miss Bampton also sang w4th the orchestra when it broadcast the 
same composition over Stations WEAF and WFI, in New York, 
on the afternoon of October 12.. 

Curtis Institute students participated in a recital before The 
Woman's Club in All Hallows Hall, Wyncote, Pennsylvania, on the 
afternoon of October 15. Those who played were Florence Frantz, 
Pianist, a student of Madame Isabelle Vengerova; Judith Poska, 
Violinist; and Theodore Saidenberg, Accompanist. 

Alice Chalifoux, Harpist, a student of Mr. Carlos Salzedo, was 
assisting artist in recitals in New York City, on October 15 and 
November 5. 

Helen Hewitt has been appointed substitute organist for tw^o 
months, beginning with November i, in the Market Square Pres- 
byterian Church of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. This was the position 
formerly held by Robert Cato, now^ organist and choirmaster of Old 
Christ Church of Philadelphia. 

Helen Watlington, a student of Madame Marcella Sembrich, has 
been appointed soprano soloist in the Church of the Redeemer, in 
Bryn Mawr. 

Carmela Ippolito, Violinist, a student of Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, 
participated in the Memorial Concert given in Boston on November 3, 
for M. Georges Longy. 



Phtografh by Condex. 



Glimpses of the Institute 


iTH THE erection of a specially constructed exhibition case in 
the Instrument Room of the Institute, it was possible re- 
cently to display a few of the latest additions to the impor- 
tant collection of fine stringed instruments owned by The 
Curtis Institute of Music and maintained for the purpose of providing 
students with the use of satisfactory instruments during the period of 
their study here and when appearing in public. At the present writ- 
ing, the group of rare old instruments includes seventeen violins, five 
violas, four violoncellos, and nine double basses, while the collection 
also contains fifteen rare violin bows, nine viola bows, and five vio- 
loncello bows. In addition, there are more than twenty-five instru- 
ments and twenty-two bows which are the product of more recent 
and less famous craftsmen, but which are, nevertheless, of high excel- 
lence in quality. Including the harps and the brass and woodwind 
instruments also owned by the Institute, the entire collection of or- 
chestral instruments has a value of more than one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. 

The accompanying photograph shows only a few of the rare vio- 
lins and violas. The seven violins in the foreground are, from left 
to right, by Januarius Gagliano (Naples 1752.), Jean Baptiste Vuil- 
laume (Paris), Pique (Paris 1793), Niccolo Gagliano (Naples 1709), 
Nicholas Lupot (Paris, circa 1800), Pietro Guarnerius (Venice 1750), 
and Nicholas Lupot (Paris 1813). The last-mentioned is an unusual 
copy of a Guarnerius del Gesu. In the background are to be glimpsed 
two of the finest of the violas: a Gasparo da Salo (Brescia 1570) and 
another by the same hand, dating from the end of the sixteenth 

Among the other instruments not photographed here, the un- 
doubted prize is the Antonius Stradivarius (Cremona 1697). The 
reader is referred to the interesting account in Overtones for November, 
192.9 — Annotations of a Stradivarius Hunter — of the circumstances of 



the acquisition of this instrument and of four others by Francesco 
Goffriller (Udine 172.5), Pietro Guarnerius (Venice 1750), Johannes 
Baptista Guadagnini (Milan 1755), and Pietro Giacomo Rogeri 
(Brescia 1700), all five reproduced in large, clear photographs. 

Also in the collection is another violin by Niccolo Gagliano (Naples 
1716), tv^o more by Guadagnini (Milan 1753 ^^^ Parma 1764), and 
instruments by Gaspar Lorenzini (Placentiae 1784), Laurentius Stori- 
oni (Cremona 1784), Carl Antonio Testori (Milan 172.9), and Carlo 
Ferdinando Landolphus (Milan 1753). 

In addition to the violas by Gasparo da Salo, there is a fine one by 
Antonius and Hieronymus Amati (Cremona 1616). Among the vio- 
loncelli, there are examples of the work of Tomasso Ballestrieri 
(Mantua 1765), Matteo Goffriller (Venice, early i8th century), 
Giovanni Grancino (Milan 1704), and Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (Paris 

Among the double basses there is one by Baldontoni (Ancona 
1770), and others by Carcassi, Cavallini, Gagliano, Piatellini, Raffo, 
Storioni, and D. Tecchler. 

The bows, which are an interesting subject in themselves, are 
mostly of French origin, the work of such men as Charles and Dominic 
Peccatte, Lamy, Lupot, Maucotel, Tourte, Voirin, Fetique, Vuill- 
aume, Simon, etc., with two English examples by Dobb and Hill. 

These names and dates may perhaps have most significance for the 
special connoisseur, but there is no music-lover in general who will 
fail to respond to the sight of these beautifully aged instruments or to 
the incomparable sound of them in studios or concert hall, when they 
are being played by the various students to whom, each year, they are 
loaned for use in study and recital. 


New Books In The Library 

cos IMA WAGNER. By Richard Count du Moidin-Eckart . Translated 
from the German by Catherine Alison Phillips. With an Introduction by 
Ernest Neivman. Two volumes. Alfred A. Knopf. 

More so than with any other of the world's few^ great composers, 
the interest of the story of Richard Wagner has centered on the Man 
as well as on the Artist. The subject of the most conflicting praise 
and denigration, Wagner's figure continues to hold the interest of 
even those only remotely interested in his music. Paradoxical and 
inconsistent as he was, shamelessly egotistic and indifferent of the 
feelings of others, although on the other hand acutely sensitive of 
his real or imagined grievances, impractical in life and unrestrained 
in the abuse and exploitation of those on whose charitv he lived, 
his purely human aspect has bewildered and embarrassed even his most 
pious adherents. 

Critical considerations of his life and character were deliberately 
promoted by Wagner himself w^hen he sponsored the publication of 
the most disconcerting Autobiography ever prepared for posterity by a 
serious artist. In the wake of this unfortunate work has followed 
the publication by Wagner's family of voluminous letters and other 
personal documents which have added new problems to the study of 
the unconvincing and frequently false accounts furnished by Wagner 
and his "ofhcial" biographers. A story so shrouded by deliberate 
mystifications and suppressions is, nevertheless, gathering clarifica- 
tion w4th the ever-increasing publication of new material. 

A recent instance of such additional light is to be found in the ap- 
pearance of the first part of Count du Moulin-Eckart's Life of Cosinza 
Wagner, which takes the story down to the death of Wagner in 1883. 
This w^ork comes as an extremelv valuable source-book, for its pages 
contain ample quotations from hitherto unknown and unpublished ma- 
terial, conspicuous among which are Cosima's correspondence with 
Ludwigll of Bavaria, dating from the beginning of the Munich period, 
and her highly-detailed account, in the form of diaries, of her life with 
Wagner beginning with the establishing of their household at Trieb- 
schen. The student of this material must be warned that it is presented 



by one of the Bayreuth coterie and therefore is quite naturally partisan 
in its viewpoint. Facts are not presented in full here when a conclu- 
sion unfavorable to Wagner or to Cosima might be drawn from them, 
and things are sometimes put in such a way that only the expert Wag- 
ner student, with a knowledge of the literature as a whole, can detect 
the little something that is being concealed, and why. Nevertheless, 
the book contributes an appreciably great mass of indisputably ver- 
acious and invaluable detail. The confirmation here of Wagner's 
unkind and patronizing references towards Liszt and — worse still! — 
Mathilde Wesendonck is a distressing and typical instance of the lack 
of reticence on the part of those very Wagnerians who protest most 
at any frank criticism of Wagner on the part of other writers; such 
indiscreet revelations of Wagner's attitude toward a great friend and 
an "immortal beloved" do not persuade other writers to spare Wagner 
unduly in presenting the truth about him. In other respects, this bi- 
ography affords us a welcome opportunity of hearing for the first time 
Cosima's side of the story of her union and life with Wagner — a 
deeply affecting account which makes one think of her more sympa- 
thetically than hitherto, and which reveals her as a woman still ruth- 
less and ambitious, it is true, but essentially idealistic and construc- 
tive in her efforts to aid in bringing Wagner's work to its completion. 

PAULINE, Favorite Sister of Napoleon. By W . N . Chattin Carlton. 
Harper & Brothers. 

Much interest has already been manifested in this engaging and en- 
lightening study of a fascinating woman of the nineteenth century, 
written, it is agreeable to learn, by the Consultant Librarian of the 
Institute; Dr. Carlton's book, we are told, has already run into three 
printings. Fortunate at the start in having as a subject Pauline, the 
Princess Borghese, a figure remarkable for her potent beauty and 
audacity, whose life is interesting even apart from its connection with 
the career of her equally audacious brother. Dr. Carlton supplements 
the great erudition with which he successfully presents the details of 
the woman's far-flung activities with a distinguished and charming 
narrative skill which at once captivates the reader and transforms the 
telling of a little known — or, in existing French works, highly dis- 



torted and uncongenial — story into an absorbing and stimulating ex- 
perience. For the one who will follow this tale with sympathetic 
understanding, the personality of the frequently unrestrained and dis- 
concertingly overwhelming Pauline will resolve itself into something 
more convincingly human and plausible than anti-Bonapartist biogra- 
phers have represented it hitherto. 

BACH, THE MASTER. A New Interpretation of His Genius. By Rut- 
land Bough ton. Harper QT Brothers. 

In spite of the long and imposing array of biographies and critical 
studies of Bach, it is the belief of the author of this new work that the 
last word on the subject has not yet been uttered. Acknowledging 
the solid foundations provided by Forkel and Spitta in securing the 
knowledge of Bach and his work, the "convincing suggestions for 
the interpretations of that work" by Dr. Albert Schweitzer, and the 
recent exhaustive presentation by Professor Sanford Terry of the ex- 
ternal conditions which influenced the master, Mr. Rutland Boughton, 
sufficiently well known in England for his interest in choral music 
and his composition of such works as the opera, The bmnortal Hour, 
here essays to contribute an additional and, it seems, highly original 
study which has as its objective the consideration of the relation be- 
tween the man and his work, and primarily the relation between that 
work and the civilization "of which Bach's art is perhaps the finest 

Mr. Boughton's thesis is an arresting and stimulating one, for in his 
interpretation of Bach's work, he reads far more of those subjective 
and deeply self-revealing elements than are demonstrated in the in- 
sufficient hints first presented by Schweitzer. For this writer, Bach's 
life was marked by a spiritual conflict, a tragedy, which found its 
embodiment in his musical creations as an outlet and a means of 
escape from the obstacles and constraints with which his faith and 
religious conviction were confronted in a society which, thanks to 
political and economic issues, had become fundamentally anti-Chris- 
tian. Interpreted in this new light, Bach's work acquires much 
additional significance for those who may incline to regard it for the 
most part as "absolute music". 


Nlusical Calendar 

November ij-p 

15 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski conducting, Academy of Music, 

16 — Lener String Quartet, Chamber Music Association concert, Bellevue-Stratford 

Ball Room, afternoon. 
16 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Radio Concert, afternoon. 
17 — Harriet Van Emden, Soprano, First Faculty Kecital, Casimir Hall, evening. 
17 — Ruth Weir Mitchell, Soprano, Academy of Music Foyer, evening. 
17 — Louis Shenk, Baritone, Bellevue-Stratford Ball Room, evening. 
18 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening. 
2.0 — Tilly Barmach, Dramatic Soprano, Witherspoon Hall, evening. 
1.0 — Simkin-GusikofF-Kazze Trio, Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., evening. 
io — Harry Blank, Baritone, Academy of Music Foyer, evening. 
XI — Philadelphia Orchestra, Carlos Salzedo, Harp Soloist, afternoon. 
XI — Radio Broadcast, Casitnir Hall, afternoon. 
XX — Philadelphia Orchestra, Salzedo, evening. 

X3 — Nelson Eddy, Baritone, and Kathryn Meisle, Contralto, Penn A. C, evening. 

X4 — Carlos Salzedo and Luctle Laurence, Harpists, Casimir Hall, evening. 

X4 — Choral Society in Gounod's Sainte-Cecilia Mass, evening. 

2.5 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

X7 — Tosca, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 

x8 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Arturo Toscanini, guest conductor, afternoon. 

x8 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

X9 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Toscanini, evening. 

December i~ij 

I — Abram Chasins, Pianist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

I — Philadelphia Orchestra, Toscanini, evening. 

X — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

3 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Philadelphia Forum concert, Toscanini, evening. 

4 — Traviata, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 

4 — Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Brahms Chorus, Church of the Holy Communion, 

5 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Toscanini, afternoon. 
6 — Fritz Kreisler, Violinist, afternoon. 
6 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Toscanini, evening. 

7 — Revelers' Male Quartette, Penn A. C. Ball Room, evening. 

8 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Pension Fund concert, Toscanini, evening. 

9 — Miecx.yslaiv MmX.-, Bianist, Casi?nir Hall, evening. 
10 — Orpheus Club, Bimboni conducting, and Judith Poska, \"iolinist, evening. 
II — La Argentina, Penn A. C. Ball Room, evening. 
II — Thais, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 
IX — Philadelphia Orchestra, Maurice Martenot, soloist on electrical instrument, 

13 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Martenot, evening. 

14 — Lener String Quartet, Chamber Music Association concert, afternoon. 
15 — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, Toscanini conducting, evening. 




The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 



Rittenhouse Square 

Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 3 December, 1930 





Editorial Comment 61 

The Violoncello, Instrument of Song Felix S almond 65 

A Music Student in Poland Louis Vy/ier 71 

Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts y6 

Opera 76 

Chamber Music 78 

Concert Course Recitals 78 

Radio Broadcasts 79 

Curtis Symphony Orchestra Broadcasts 81 

Other Events 81 

Faculty Activities 84 

The Library 87 

Music Calendar 88 


Lynnwood Farnam, 188^-ig^o 60 

Felix Saimond, Head of the Department of Violoncello 64 

Louis Vyner w^ith Emil Mlynarski in Zakopane, Poland 73 

The Connell Vocal Quartet 80 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overmnei 
Copyright 1930 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 




Editorial Comment 


JHis IS NOT the first time, unfortunately, that we have been 
obliged, in these pages, to mourn the loss of a cherished 
member of the Institute and to find consolation in some final 
word of tribute. But with the recent death of Dr. Lynn- 
wood Farnam, for four years Head of the Department of Organ, we 
must for the first time mark the passing of one of our community who 
was still young and vigorous, certainly in what is termed the "prime" 
of life. 

Although only forty-five years in age, Dr. Farnam had attained a 
position of eminence, both for his skill as a performer and for his pro- 
found musicianship, such as rarely is won even by those of more ad- 
vanced years and with longer experience. His almost unique capaci- 
ties as organist were the result, nevertheless, of many years of study 
and practical development. At the early age of fifteen, his studies in 
his native country of Canada were successful enough to bring him the 
Strathcona-Stephen scholarship which enabled him to spend the next 
four years in study at the Royal College of Music in London. The 
organ was his instrument by preference; in an article published in 
these pages last April, Dr. Farnam affirmed that "the spirit of the or- 
gan" was in his makeup "from earliest boyhood," that his childhood 
years "were marked by intense longings for the realization of organ 
dreams." After his return to Canada in 1904 at the age of nineteen, the 
young organist entered upon a succession of positions: St. James's 
Methodist Church, the Church of St. James the Apostle, and the 
Christ Church Cathedral, in Montreal; the Emmanuel Church in Bos- 
ton; and the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City. 
At the comparatively early age of thirty-five, he then took the post 



at the Church of the Holy Communion in New York which he oc- 
cupied with such distinction throughout the following decade. It 
was undoubtedly during these years of practical occupation that he 
developed and rounded out his conception of organ-playing and his 
vast knowledge of organ literature 

Dr. Farnam's efforts on behalf of his instrument and its literature 
were those of a pioneer in a period when they proved most timely. 
As a concert artist in this country and in Europe he was most active: 
as soloist he appeared here with the Society of the Friends of Music 
in New York, at the Coolidge Foundation Festival of Chamber 
Music in Washington, the Cincinnati Music Festival, and in the nu- 
merous cities included in his widespread concert tours; while his per- 
formances abroad have occurred in such places as York Minster, Bath 
Abbey, the Cathedrals of Westminster, Southwark, and Exeter, 
Christ Church, Oxford, and so forth, in England, and in the American 
Cathedral and the Churches of Sainte-Clotilde and St. Germain des 
Pres of Paris. During recent years, his incomparable performances of 
the organ works of Bach, his invaluable programmes of Bach's prede- 
cessors, and his devoted sponsorship of significant modern works, all 
demonstrated Dr. Farnam's active and unrivaled command of a re- 
pertoire of the highest merit. Philadelphia was destined this season 
to hear his series of all of Bach's organ compositions. A memorable 
occasion in the annals of The Curtis Institute was the recital by Dr. 
Farnam which marked the formal presentation of Mr. Cyrus H. K. 
Curtis 's gift of the concert organ in Casimir Hall. 

In addition to his own musical activities, Dr. Farnam was a tire- 
less and productive teacher. After a period of only a few years, 
he had to his credit a group of students who now occupy some of the 
best church organ positions in the country and who are equipped to 
carry on the traditions rediscovered and established largely by Dr. 
Farnam's efforts alone. If there is to be a renaissance of organ play- 
ing and organ repertoire in the coming generation, it will be just to 
ascribe its initial impetus to Lynnwood Farnam. 



With so much already accomplished only midway in life, what great 
things in addition might have been realized by him if his life had not 
been interrupted ruthlessly! It is fortunate for the world that he has 
left an indelible imprint on those whom he has trained to carry on his 

Aside from his manv activities and hi^h achievements, one would 
nevertheless have recognized the calibre of the artist by his essen- 
tial modesty and lack of assumption. Always generous in his interest 
and enthusiasm, especially in matters which concerned the welfare of 
his students and the Institute in general, it was characteristic of Mr. 
Farnam to bequeath to The Curtis Institute his very complete library 
of music — a generous and most valuable gift, which is greatly appre- 
ciated here. Genial in his friendship and affable in his humor, his 
was a figure which, from the purely human standpoint, will be missed 
keenly in The Curtis Institute by those for whom the Man was no less 
admirable than the Artist. 

63 1 


FELIX SALMOND, Head of the Department of Violoncello 


The Violoncelloj Instrument of Song 


Editor's Note: From Mr. Felix Sahnond, Head of the Defartmrnt of 
Violo7icello, comes the folloiving article, one more in that series of contributions 
from faculty members of The Curtis Institute of Music ivhich have been 
-published by tvay of reply to the Open Letter of the Director tvhich appeared 
in the November ipip number of Overtones. Mr. S almond's interesting 
account suggests clearly how much ivider the violoncello repertoire is than one 
commonly supposes, ivhile his trenchant observations on specific icorks in this 
repertoire ivill prove stimulating ajid suggestive. 

HE VIOLONCELLO is Undoubtedly one of the three solo instru- 
ments which is important in itself and in the music which 
has been composed for it by the great Masters. It is par 
excellence the great singer and poet of the trio and is un- 
equalled by the piano or the violin in its variety and range of tone 
color and in its capacity to express music of nobility, tenderness, and 

The violoncello can sing soprano, contralto, tenor, and bass, and it 
is capable of equal beauty of tone in all of these registers. That the 
greatest composers recognized this unique feature of the violon cello's 
tone color, can be clearly perceived in the works of Beethoven and 
Brahms. The five Sonatas of the former Master and the two Sonatas 
and magnificent 'cello part in the Double Concerto of Brahms are striking 
examples of this aspect of the characteristic qualities of the instrument . 
Indeed, it is not too much to say that these works contain everything 
of which the violoncello is capable musically and technically. Obvi- 
ously, both composers loved the instrument and realized acutely its 
nobility, as well as its possibilities for lyrical and dramatic utterance. 
In none of these works is the instrument asked to compete with its 



more brilliant and dazzling sister, the violin. The violoncello cannot 
"show off" without losing its true tonal character: however bril- 
liantly "fireworks" on the 'cello are executed, they fail, and must 
always fail, to compete in effect with the same type of composition 
for the piano or the violin. 

No, the violoncello student must be concerned primarily with 
acquiring a technique which will enable him or her — amazing how 
many women learn the 'cello, although it is the most masculine of 
instruments and requires great physical strength to play well! — to 
absorb the musical contents of the masterpieces written for the instru- 
ment. It is incredible how, even today, students of quite mediocre 
technical ability imagine that they have sufficient equipment to take 
part in chamber music performances! One cannot be a first class 
ensemble player with a second class technique; neither can a purely 
solo performer on any instrument become a fine chamber music player 
unless much of his early music training has been devoted to this most 
absorbing and difficult branch of the Art of Music. Let no student 
imagine that a technique inadequate for performance of the standard 
'cello concertos will prove adequate for the exceedingly important 
and difficult 'cello parts in the chamber music of Beethoven, Brahms, 
Schubert, and many others. The 'cello parts of the quartets of Haydn 
and Mozart, for example, appear to be far from difficult technically, 
but they flatter only to deceive ! They require a complete command of 
bow and fingers, especially the former, if they are to be played with the 
necessary finish, rhythmic precision, and beauty of tone. One could 
write at great length of the 'cello parts in the chamber music of 
Beethoven, Brahms, and Schubert. In each work of these three com- 
posers the 'cello has parts of the highest importance and difficulty. 
For their mastery endless hard work is obligatory; but the student will 
be richly rewarded who makes of them a serious and constant study, 
for unquestionably it is in these works — beyond all others — that the 
unique beauty of the violoncello receives its fullest expression. 

Important and rich in musical interest as are many of the works 
composed for 'cello and orchestra (some of which will be briefly 



touched upon later), it is, with one or two exceptions, in the Sonata 
repertoire that the violoncello as a solo instrument is most convincing. 
Beethoven left five Sonatas^ two in his earliest period: in F major and 
G minor, Opus 5, Nos. i and 2.; one in his second period: the very 
famous and lovely Sonata in A major, Opus 69; and two in his third 
and last period: in C major and D major, Opus loi, Nos. i and 2.. 
the latter of which contains one of the most sublime and deeply moving 
slow movements that even this Master ever created. Indeed, this 
Adagio, together with the Adagio of the Second Sonata of Brahms, in F 
major, Opus 99, is the very summit of all the beautiful music com- 
posed for the violoncello. 

The two earlv Sonatas of Beethoven are full of melody, lyrical 
charm, gaiety, and humour, and they are most gratefully written for 
the stringed instrument. The great Sonata in A major is one of 
Beethoven's few happy works of this period. It is nearly all sunshine, 
and the superb Scherzo and Finale sparkle. Nevertheless, the first 
movement is the finest, with its noble opening subject and its masterly 
development section. This work is almost Italian in feeling and the 
'cello part is most grateful to play. 

Of the two last Sonatas, the one in C major — fine as it is — is over- 
shadowed in importance and inspiration by that in D major (No. 2.), 
which, in addition to its unique Adagio, possesses a highly dramatic 
first movement and, for a Finale, one of the finest fugues composed by 

Brahms, in his two Sonatas, Opus 38 in E minor and Opus 99 in 
F major, enriched the violoncellist's repertoire in no small measure. 
The E minor must be treasured especially for its poetic and gravely 
beautiful first movement. The F major sonata is a complete master- 
piece and one of the glories of 'cello music. 

Before touching upon the modern Sonatas, a few words must be 
devoted to the six unaccompanied Suites of Bach. These composi- 
tions, amazing in their exposition of the 'cello's resources, may be 



said to have become familiar through the miraculous performance 
given to them by Pablo Casals. Chiefly through them he attained his 
unique position as an interpreter and executant. As Joachim's 
performances of the last quartets of Beethoven are said to have been 
beyond compare, so are the performances of the Bach Suites by the 
great Spaniard . These suites of dances are full of charming invention, 
and, in some of the Preludes and in all of the Sarabandes, of deep feeling. 
The 'cello student and artist will find in them a rewarding and inex- 
haustible musical and technical study. 

A few remarks on the modern Sonatas must suffice. There are fine 
and effective works by such composers as Chopin, Grieg, Rachmanin- 
off, Jean Hure, Debussy, Guy Ropartz, Frank Bridge, Dohnanyi, and 
many others. 

The early Italian Masters contributed much splendid music to 
the repertoire with their Solo Sonatas. These works by Marcello, 
Boccherini, Veracini, Sammartini, Valentini, Locatelli, Corelli, 
Tartini, and many others, show, above all, the possibilities of 
the violoncello as an instrument of song. Indeed, although many of 
the composers last mentioned wrote their Sonatas originally for the 
violin — Locatelli and Valentini, for example — yet these works are now 
played always on the 'cello and are generally regarded as original 
'cello works. The great Italian 'cellist, Alfredo Piatti, rendered an 
invaluable service to the repertoire of his instrument by his admirable 
editions of Marcello, Boccherini, Valentini, Locatelli, Porpora, etc. 
In our own day, Joseph Salmon of Paris has made a very interesting 
edition of about sixty of these old Sonatas. 

We come now to the Concertos. Hadyn's Concerto in D and Boc- 
cherini 's in B flat are the two most popular of the old works in this 
form, and they both contain much lovely and charming melody, as 
well as many technical difficulties. What would 'cellists not give 
for a concerto by Mozart, Beethoven (his Triple Concerto is a compara- 
tively poor work), Schubert, and Mendelsohn! Mendelssohn is 
known to have declared his intention of writing a concerto for Piatti, 



for whose playing he had great admiration; but alas! his early death 
prevented the fulfilment of the promise. Schumann loved the 'cello — - 
see the superb 'cello parts in his chamber music! — and left us a Concerto 
(Opus 12.9) which contains some beautiful and also some weak and 
uninspired music. The opening theme of this concerto ranks with the 
finest inspirations of Schumann, but unfortunately the promise of a 
masterpiece is not achieved, and the work falls off in musical interest 
as it progresses. The Fmale, especially, is poor music and is too long. 
As a whole, the work must be accounted ' 'a splendid failure. ' ' On the 
other hand, Brahms, in his Double Concerto, has given to 'cellists one 
of his grandest creations. Important as the violin part is, the 'cello 
is the leading protagonist all through the work. The Concerto is 
played more frequently than in former years, but is is still not as well 
known as it should and will be. 

Dvorak, in his B minor Concerto, gave to 'cellists one of his master- 
pieces. The intensely dramatic opening subject of the first movement, 
with its exquisitely poetic second subject, the inspired Adagio, and the 
splendid Finale show the violoncello in all its aspects, even though the 
orchestration is too heavy in places. Indeed, the work is almost a 
symphony with 'cello obbligato, in the same way that the Brahms 
Concerto for Violin is a Symphony. 

Lalo and Saint-Saens, in his first Concerto in A Minor, have con- 
tributed two immensely popular and effective works to the repertoire 
of the 'cellist. Elgar's concerto, while lacking the grandeur of his 
similar work for the violin, nevertheless contains much poetic and 
characteristic music and is a welcome addition to the concerto litera- 
ture. It is, however, when we come to Richard Strauss's Don Quixote 
(in which a solo 'cello portrays the Don^ and, above all, to Ernest 
Bloch's unsurpassed Schelomo (Solomon), a Hebrew Rhapsody for 
violoncello solo and grand orchestra, that the 'cello soars to epic 
grandeur. Strauss never reached greater heights of profound inspira- 
tion than in the final variation of his DonQtiixote, which is an intensely 
moving solo for the 'cello, depicting the death of the Knight. These 



pages of Strauss will live when much of his other work has faded, for 
here we are in the presence of a true Poet, Philosopher, and Seer. 
If Ernest Bloch had composed nothing but his Schelomo, he would take 
his place among the great Masters of Music . It is a work of passionate 
sincerity, grandeur, power, and sublime beauty. As the slow move- 
ments of Beethoven and Brahms especially discussed in this paper 
stand for the cornerstones of 'cello chamber music creations, so is this 
masterpiece of Bloch 's worthy to be placed beside the achievements of 
the older Masters. It is inconceivable that any instrument but the 
violoncello could have been chosen by Bloch for Schdomo. All its 
resources for tone colour in song and for dramatic expression have been 
seized upon by the composer with amazing skill, and despite the over- 
whelming power of the tuttis, there is no feeling of weakness when the 
solo instrument is heard. In Schelomo the violoncello is, in truth, the 
King of Instruments ! 

The name of David Popper cannot be omitted from any survey of 
the 'cello repertoire. This famous Hungarian virtuoso wrote for 
the instrument a vast number of charming, effective, and musicianly 
pieces, and, from all accounts, played them inimitably. He might be 
called the Sarasate of the 'cello: both men were brilliant technicians 
of a similar type, and both excelled in their fascinating and unique 
performances of their own music. 

In conclusion, it is quite conceivable that more music lovers will 
turn to the violoncello as the instrument of their choice, and that the 
standard of playing may in time also be raised to a position equal to 
that of the two other members of the Great Trio. 


A Nlusic Student in Poland 


Editor's Note: The ivriter of the folloicing article has but recently returned 
from a summer in Poland ivhere he studied conducting with Mr. Emil 
Ally nar ski in Warsaiv, Krakoiv, and elseivhere in that country. During 
his stay, he conducted a performance of the Warsaiv Philharmonic Orches- 
tra, the first instance of an American s conducting in Poland. The fol- 
loicing account of Mr. Vyner's first-hand impressions during his summer 
u'ill prove of interest to 777 any readers. 

bLAND rose from out "the smoke of fires and the waves of 
blood", according to her national hymn, and now, from 
the maelstrom of the World War, she has emerged once 
more toward an independent existence. Her origin re- 
mains as mysterious as her zealous spirit which has lived through 
tyrannical suppression unknown to other nations. Since the time 
when Poland fell a victim to her powerful and united enemies until 
her rebirth during the late war, that country has been torn by one 
bloody revolution after another. To men like Kosciuszko, Poniatow- 
ski, and Pilsudski, the freedom of Poland is the sole and only ideal. 
Every generation has followed its noble leaders valiantly into battle. 
Even when divided, Poland has always preserved a strong unity of 
spirit — a characteristic that has made her unconquerable. 

During the century of triple servitude to Russia, Austria, and Ger- 
many, the Polish people maintained their individuality, not only 
successfully resisting all attempts at cultural suppression, but even 
adding to the world's treasure of human culture. In spite of all oppo- 
sition, the Polish race has kept alive a love of learning. During 
one thousand years of her independent existence under the continu- 
ous rule of forty kings, Poland attained as high a degree of culture as 
any country in Europe. The first university of Eastern Europe, the 



precursor of similar universities at Wilno, Warsaw, Lwow, and 
Zamosc, was opened in 1364 at Krakow. From its walls emerged 
Copernicus. In the sixteenth century, Poland gave birth to great 
poets, eminent writers, and scientists. Toward the middle of the 
eighteenth century, the first Ministry of Public Education in Europe 
was created in Poland. The reform introduced by this commission 
was many centuries ahead of the educational ideas of the time. More- 
over, during this period, Poland developed a complex political or- 
ganization far in advance of that of other European nations, which has 
left its indelible mark on Polish character. About this time the Pol- 
ish state was one of the most important in Europe. Krakow and War- 
saw were the twin homes of culture in Eastern Europe long before 
Berlin was heard of or St. Petersburg built. Verily, these facts illus- 
trate the energetic and inventive spirit of the Poles. 

During my recent visit to Poland, I received my first indelible im- 
pression in Krakow, which is the oldest Polish city. Horses, car- 
riages, and drivers dressed in singular habit seemed like a vision. 
The present automatically became remote and faint; I was living in 
the past. I rode from the station to my hotel in a dorozka. Driving 
through narrow, intimate streets, it seemed paradoxical in this civi- 
lized age to discover a land which, in spite of all opposition, has re- 
tained its charm of yesterday. A line of detached forts has been built 
around Krakow, and an ancient castle on a height commands the 
town. There is the Stanislas Cathedral, built in 1359, which contains 
many interesting antiquities relating to the Kingdom of Poland. The 
monarchs were crowned in this edifice, which also hold the mauso- 
leums of the Sigismunds, the silver coffin of the holy Stanislas, and the 
remains of John Sobieski, Poniatowski, and Kosciuszko, who also 
fought in our own country for America's independence. The cathe- 
dral is adorned with sculpture by Thorwaldsen and a wooden carved 
altar by Veit Stwosz, who was a native of Krakow. 

In this city there are about forty churches, each possessing its in- 
dividual charm, and dating back many centuries. In the main square 



stand the old Gothic cloth booths, and the ancient Hotel de Ville 
with its fine tower. Another singular source of interest is the trum- 
peter who plays his bugle call to the four corners of the earth each 
hour of the day and night, from the tower of St. Mary's. At noon on 
every Sunday, the peasants congregate to hear the old bell called 
Zygj?2unt. The entire atmosphere is one of simplicity and charm, 
and the people proved to be most sympathetic . 

From Krakow I journeyed to Zakopane, a village in the Carpathian 
mountains. Here I met my dear friend, teacher, and adviser, Mr. 
Mlynarski, with whom I was to spend a most pleasant summer study- 
ing orchestra repertoire, and with whose family I was to enjoy an 
intimate friendship. Zakopane, with its fascinating surroundings, 
is picturesque beyond description. Here new objects of wonder 
presented themselves. The mountaineers still wear their colorful 
native costumes. The men wear 
white woolen breeches, verv tight, 
with colorful embroidery about the 
waist line, a sheepskin jacket, or a 
white capecoat, also colorfully de- 
signed, worn only on Sundav, and 
an oval hat with the rim turned up 
in the back. On Sunday, a feather 
adorns the hat. The women wear 
very bright colors, w4th colorful 
shawls over their heads. 

These natives inhabit the hills, 
the village being occupied bv art- 
ists, musicians, and writers who 
spend most of their time in Zako- 
pane, both in summer and in win- 
ter. The artistry and ingenuity of 
the mountaineers are most astound- 
ing. Lacking modern implements, 
they contrive instruments which 




suffice. They are also talented musically. Untouched by the turmoil 
and explosiveness of modern civilization, these children of nature, 
highly intelligent and charming, possess simplicity which is a mark 
of greatness. The fact that the Poles have employed intelligence, 
more than mere knowledge gained from paper, has developed their 
distinguished individuality. 

Separating the village from the Carpathians lies a forest of pine 
trees. Like sentinels, very erect, they stand guarding the entrances 
to the mysterious hills which swell up to a noble height and lord over 
the surrounding country. Every change of weather, every hour of 
the day, produces some change in the magical hues and shapes of 
these mountains, and they are regarded as perfect barometers. In 
fair weather they are clothed in blue and purple, and print their bold 
outlines against the clear sky; at other times they will gather a hood 
of gray vapors about their summits. It was an inspiration to work in 
such unusual surroundings. 

From Zakopane, I went with Mr. Mlynarski to Warsaw, where he 
had arranged my debut with the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra. 
I found Warsaw more modern, but still unaffected, resembling the 
places already mentioned. The streets of Warsaw are very animated 
and are adorned with many fine buildings. Numerous public gardens 
and monuments embellish the city. Warsaw is proud of the Lazienki 
gardens laid out on the Vistula by Stanislas Augustus Poniatowski. 
Admired for its beautiful alleys and artificial ponds, this lovely spot 
also contains an elegant little palace with ceilings painted by Bac- 
ciorelli, several royal villas, and a monument to Sobiewski. An 
artificial ruin on an island makes an open air theatre, the stage of 
which is separated from the auditorium by a channel of water, while 
its decorations blend with the parks and the palace behind. 

One Sunday I rowed with friends about eight miles up the Vistula 
to Wilanow where stands the palace of John Sobiewski, which was 
partly built by Turkish prisoners in a fine Italian style, and which is 



now renowned for its historical portraits and pictures. In Warsaw, 
other places of interest were the Cathedral of St. John, built in Gothic 
style, and the Sacred Cross Church wherein lies the heart of Chopin. 
I also visited the Philharmonic Auditorium, which is quite modern 
and w^hich seats over two thousand people. Two marble plaques, 
with inscriptions, adorn the entrance. On one are the names of mu- 
sicians who participated in the first concert given twenty-seven years 
ago. Emil Mlynarski, one of the founders, conducted, and Ignace 
Paderewski was the soloist. On the other plaque are inscribed the 
names of famous Polish musicians — men of whom Poland is proud. 
Among the noted names are those of the father and son, Casimir and 
Josef Hofmann. The Opera in Warsaw is one of the oldest organiza- 
tions of its kind in Eastern Europe, and dates back more than several 
hundred years. 

The Polish race is one of artists by birth. There is scarcely a de- 
partment in the whole realm of art in which these people have not 
gained distinction and world-wide fame. In literature, Mickiewicz, 
Krasinski, and Sienkiewicz have gained wide reputations. In music, 
we are well familiar with Chopin, Moniuszko, Wieniawski, De 
Reszke, Leshetitzki, Karol Szymanowski (whom I met in Zakopane), 
Paderewski, Sembrich, Mlynarski, and Josef Hofmann. In sculp- 
ture, we have Godebski and W. Szymanowski, while Veit Stwosz 
is a unique figure throughout the world for his wood carving. Each 
of these has his individuality, but all possess the charm embedded in 
that unique race — the Poles. 

I feel greatly indebted to my inspirers, Mrs. Bok and Mr. Hofmann, 
who made possible this summer's achievements, and to my friend, Mr. 
Mlynarski, under whose careful guidance I extended my musical 




^rtfjur Holmgren 


BORN JUNE 1 8, 1903 


Student Activities 


HE SECOND of the Studciits' Concerts in Casimir Hall for the 
current season was presented by three pupils of Mr. Edwin 
Bachmann, in Violin, on the evening of December 10. 
Marian Head played Louis Spohr's Concerto No. 11 in G 
major, Opus 70; Frances Wiener was heard in Max Bruch's Concerto 
No. 2 in D minor, Opus 44; and Abe Burg concluded with Henri 
Vieuxtemps's Concerto No. 4 in D minor, Opus 31. Their accompanist 
was Sara Newell, a student of Mr. Harry Kaufman. 


ARTIST STUDENTS of the Voice Department of The Curtis Institute 
of Music have continued to fill professional engagements with 
The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, in accordance with the 
programme of affiliation between that organization and the Institute. 
Since the performances of Gianni Schicchi and Pagliacci on October 30, 
five more operas have been produced up to the present writing. 

Donizetti's Lucia di Lam?nermoor was the Fourth Performance of the 
season, on the evening of November 6. In support of the well-known 
principal singers, Josephine Lucchese, Chief Caupolican, Josef Wol- 
inski, and Ivan Steschenko, there were our artist students: Albert 
M2ih\cv, Tenor, Rose Bampton, Contralto, and Daniel Healey, Tenor, who 
sang the roles respectively of Arttiro Bucklaiv, Alisa, and Normanno. 
All three are artist students of Mr. Horatio Connell. 



An event of unusual importance was the Fifth Performance, that of 
Mussorgsky's Boris Godounov, in Russian, on November 13. In this 
extremely successful production Curtis Institute students appeared to 
much advantage in several outstanding roles. Notable were Irene 
Petina, Soprano, as Feodor; Charlotte Symons, Soprajio, as Xenia; Genia 
Wilkomirska, Soprano, as Marina Mnichek; Conrad Thibault, Baritone, 
as Schelkalov; Abraham Robofsky, Baritone, as Pristav; and Albert 
Mahler, Tenor, as The Innocent and The Herald. In addition, the parts 
of Krustchov, Lavitsky, and Cherniakovsky were taken by Benjamin De 
Loache, Baritone, Daniel Healy, Tenor, and Arthur Holmgren, Baritone. 
This opera, like Lucia, was conducted by Emil Mlynarski. 

On November 2.7, Puccini's popular and perhaps greatest work, 
Tosca, was presented as the Sixth Performance of the Philadelphia 
Grand Opera Company, with Eugene Goossens as conductor. In 
support of Bianca Saroya, Richard Crooks (who was making his 
American debut in Grand Opera), Chief Caupolican, and Ivan Stes- 
chenko, several artist students of the Institute were again heard: 
Abraham Robofsky had a particularly good opportunity in the amus- 
ing role of the Sacristan; Albert Mahler, as Spoletta, and Alfred De 
Long, as Sciarrone, were similarly outstanding; while Benjamin De 
Loache sang the part of A Gaoler and Rose Bampton that of A 
Shepherd Boy. 

The Seventh opera of the season was Verdi's La Traviata, given on 
December 4, when Claire Clairbert made her Philadelphia debut. 
Singing with her were John Charles Thomas and Ivan Dneproff, while 
Curtis Institute students who participated were Helen Jepson, Soprano, 
as Tlora Bervoix; Paceli Diamond, Soprano, as Annitia; Albert Mahler, as 
Gastone de Letorieres; Abraham Robofsky, as Baron Douphol; and Alfred 
De Long, as Martinis D'Obigny. Emil Mlynarski conducted. 

Massenet's Thais followed as the Eighth Performance, on Decem- 
ber 11. A special matinee performance of Humperdinck's Hansel 
iind Gretel, together with the ballet. Die Ptippenfee, will be presented 
on the afternoon of December 2.0. The next following opera perform- 
ance will be that of Lohengrin on January 15. 




THE SERIES of Chamber Music recitals by our artist students in the 
Pennsylvania Museum of Art at Fairmount, under the direction of 
Dr. Louis Bailly, was continued with the second concert which took 
place on the evening of Sunday, December 14. The opening number 
of the programme was Sergius Taneiev's Quartet in E major, Opus 2.0, 
played by Jennie Robinor, Piano, Jacob Brodsky, Violin, Samuel Gold- 
blum, Viola, and Adine Barozzi, Violoncello. This was followed by a 
rarely heard and interesting work, Hermann Zilcher's The Song of 
Solomon, Variations for Contralto and Baritone, Piano, and String 
Quartet. In this the vocal soloists were Ruth Gordon and Conrad 
Thibault, assisted by Jennie Robinor at the Piano and a String Quartet 
made up of Jacob Brodsky, Paul Gershman, Samuel Goldblum, and 
Adine Barozzi. The concluding offering was Felix Mendelssohn's 
Octet in E flat major, Opus 2.0, performed by Paul Gershman, Gama 
Gilbert, James Bloom, and Benjamin Sharlip, Violins, Max Aronoff 
and Leon Frengut, Violas, and Orlando Cole and Frank Miller, Violon- 
cellos. This programme was played in Casimir Hall, at the Institute, 
on the afternoon of December 1 1 . 


FURTHER RECITALS have bccH given in this season's course of twenty- 
five concerts presented by The Curtis Institute of Music before 
schools, colleges, clubs, and similar groups. The following is a list 
of recitals and participants since the first concert on October 15th: 

November 14 — Western Maryland College, Westminster, Maryland: William 
Harms, Pianist; Arthur Holmgren, Bass-Barifof2e; Celia Gomberg, Violinist; and 
Eugene Helmer, Accompanist. 

November 18 — State Teachers' College, West Chester, Pennsylvania: Joseph 
Levine, Pianist; Edna Corday, Soprano; Paul Gershman, Violinist; Yvonne Krinsky, 

November 19 — The Wednesday Club, Fahnestock Hall, Harrisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania: Jorge Bolet, Pianist; Agnes Davis, Soprano; Judith Poska, Violinist; and 
Theodore Saidenberg, Accompanist. 

November 2.0 — University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware (given in Mitchell 
Hall under the auspices of the Newark Music Society): Robert Cato, Organist; Mil- 
dred Cable, Soprano; Iso Brisello, Violinist; and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanist. 

December i — Moorestown Woman's Club, Trinity Church, Moorestown, New 
Jersey: George Pepper, Violinist; Ardelle Hookins, Flutist, and Lawrence Apgar, 



December 5 — New Jersey College for Women, New Brunswick, New Jersey: 
Conrad Thibault, Baritone\ Florence Frantz, Pianist; Carmela Ippolito, Violinist; and 
Eugene Helmer and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanists. 

A recital was given on December 13 at the George School, George 
School, Pennsylvania. Another appearance in the near future w^ill 
occur on January 7 at Mary wood College, Scranton, Pennsylvania. 


IN THE SERIES of twcnty tadio concerts being given this season by the 
artist students of The Curtis Institute of Music over thirty-one 
stations of the Columbia Broadcasting System, on Friday afternoons 
from 4 o'clock to 4:45, Eastern Standard Time, the Second Programme 
was presented on November 14, as follows: Mozart's String Quintet in 
C minor (Kochel No. 406) for Two Violins, Two Violas, and Violon- 
cello, was played by the Swastika Quartet with Leon Frengut as 
assisting viola player. These students were under the artistic direc- 
tion of Dr. Louis Bailly. Wilbur Evans, Baritone contributed the 
second half of the programme with the following group of songs: De 
Lully's Gloomy Woods in Darkness Receive Me, Holmes' To My Country, 
Debussy's Evening Fair, La Forge's Hills, Massenet's Fleeting Vision, 
and Hammond's The Pipes of Gordon s Men. Joseph Rubanoff was the 
Accompanist for these songs. 

The Third Programme was presented on November 2.1, in three 
parts. Oscar Shumsky, Violinist, a thirteen-year-old pupil of Mr. 
Efrem Zimbalist, played Kreisler's Rondino on a Theme by Beethoven, 
Dohnany's Hungarian Scenes, No. 1, Schumann's Romance in A major, 
Kreisler's Fair Rosemary, and Valse Bluette by Drigo-Auer. Sara 
Newell, a student of Mr. Harry Kaufmann, was the Accompanist. 
The Connell Vocal Quartet, whose personnel includes Helen Jepson, 
Soprano, Rose Bampton, Contralto, Albert Mahler, Tenor, and Clarence 
Reinert, Baritone (all students of Mr. Horatio Connell), sang a Trio 
from Ponchielli's La Gioconda, a Quartet from Balfe's The Bohemian Girl, 
and a Quartet from Lehmann's In a Persian Garden. Joseph Rubanoff 
was their Accompanist. Last on the programme was the Variation 
movement from Beethoven's "Archduke" Trio, played by Carmela 

179 1 





Ippolito, Violin, Orlando Cole, Violoncello, and Joseph Levine, Piano. 
These students were under the artistic direction of Dr. Louis Bailly. 

On Friday November 2.8 the Fourth Programme was heard. Dvor- 
ak's String Quartet in F major. Opus 96 ("American") and the Scherbo 
from Mendelssohn's String Quartet, Opus 44, No. 2. were performed by 
the Swastika Quartet, whose personnel continues to be Gama Gilbert 
and Benjamin Sharlip, Violins, Max Aronoff, Viola, and Orlando Cole, 
Violoncello. The concluding work was Brahms 's String Quintet, Opus 
115, in playing which the Swastika Quartet was assisted by Leonard 
Mogill as second viola player. 



wo special concerts of unusual significance were those broadcast 
by the Curtis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Emil Mlynarski, 
on the Sunday afternoons of November 30 and December 7. These 
concerts, which were of two hours' duration each, lasting from three 
to five o'clock, were especially arranged for by The Columbia Broad- 
casting System in place of the concerts ordinarily broadcast during that 
time by the New York Philharmonic-Svmphony Orchestra. During 
the intermissions on both occasions, Mr. Olin Downes of the New 
York Times gave ten-minute talks in which the programmes were 

The first concert had as its soloist Martha Halbwachs, a student of 
Mr. Josef Hofmann, playing Brahms' Concerto in B flat major. No. 2., 
Opus 83 , for Piano and Orchestra . The rest of the programme consisted 
of Haydn's Symphony in C minor. No. 9, Strauss's Don Juan, and the 
Siegfried-Idyll and Prelude to Die Meistersinger by Wagner. In 
the second concert, Judith Poska, a graduate student of Madame 
Lea Luboshutz, was soloist, playing the Conus Concerto in E 
minor, for Violin and Orchestra. The other works performed in- 
cluded Humperdinck's Hansel und Gretel Overture, the Symphony in D 
jnajor, No. 2., Opus 73, by Brahms, Debussy's Fetes and U Apres-Midi 
d' un Faun, and Paul Dukas' U Apprenti Sorcier. 




As USUAL, a number of interesting and profitable engagements have 
come to students of the Institute during the past month: Carl 
Weinrich, formerly a student of Mr. Lynnwood Farnam, has been 
appointed to the position of organist of the Church of the Holy 
Communion of New York City which was left vacant by the death of 
its former incumbent, Mr. Farnam. Mr. Weinrich is to be felicitated 
on this signal distinction, which comes as one of the most outstanding 
appointments ever received by a student of The Curtis Institute. . . . 
On November ii, Jennie Robinor, Pianist, a Chamber Music pupil of 
Dr. Bailly, and Clara Reisenberg, Violinist, formerly a student of 
Professor Auer, gave a joint recital at the home of Mrs. Gretchen 
Damrosch Finletter in New York City. Mrs. Finletter is a daughter 
of Walter Damrosch. . . . The Men's Club of the Rodeph Sholom 
Congregation of Philadelphia has arranged to have Institute students 
supply the musical programmes at six of their monthly meetings this 
year. On the evening of November 17 the first programme was given 
by Arthur Holmgren, Baritone, Celia Gomberg, Violinist, and Eugene 
Helmer, Pianist. The second programme is being presented on Decem- 
ber 15 by Irene Singer, Soprano, Leonard Mogill, Viola, and Joseph 
Rubanoff, Pianist. . . . On November 19 Helen Jepson, Soprano, 
and Florence Frant2, Pianist, gave a joint recital for the Women's Club 
of Riverton, New Jersey. 

On the evening of December 5 a brief musical programme was pro- 
vided by the Swastika Quartet and the Connell Quartet on the occasion 
of an entertainment given by Mr. Cyrus H. K. Curtis for those who 
made up the committee which helped to raise money for the Benjamin 
Franklin Memorial. . . . Paul Robinson, Organist, was assisting 
soloist at a Bach concert given on December 8 at Bucknell University, 
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. . . . On December 9 Helen Jepson sang 
with the Apollo Club of Brooklyn, New York. . . . The musical 
programme which was a part of the meeting at the Penn Athletic Club 
on December 9 held under the auspices of the Barnwell Lectureship of 

1 82 I 


the Philadelphia Central High School was presented by Conrad Thi- 
bault, Baritone, Philip Frank, Violinist, Florence Frantz, Pianist, and 
Eugene Helmer, Accompanist. The lecturer on this occasion was Dr. 
Henry Turner Bailey. . . . On the afternoon of December lo 
Florence Irons, Soprano, sang for a meeting of the Colony Club of 

Ambler, Pennsylvania On December 15 Orlando Cole, 

Violoncellist, is appearing as special soloist at a choral concert given 
by the Octave Club of Norristown, Pennsylvania. . . . On the 
same day Rose Bampton, Contralto, is singing for the English and 
Music Departments of New York University. . . . Edward Kane, 
a student of Mr. Emilio De Gogorza, has been appointed tenor soloist 
at St. James Episcopal Church of this city. 


Faculty Activities 


|N NOVEMBER 17, the First of this season's series of Faculty 
Recitals was presented by Miss Harriet van Emden, Soprano. 
Mr. Harry Kaufman assisted at the Piano. The pro- 
gramme was opened with two arias by Mozart: Ah, 
lo so from II Flauto Magico, and No7i so piii cos a son from Le Nozx.^ d,i 
Figaro. A German group included Schubert's Die Mutter Erde and 
Auflosung; Schumann's Lied der Braut, I and II, and Auftrdge; and 
Brahms's ''Am Sonntag NLorgen,'' Vorschneller Scbwur, and Botschaft. 
Rudolf Mengelberg's Lieder nach Verlaine, dedicated to Miss van 
Emden, included four songs, two of which were a "first performance" 
in America. In the fourth section of the programme were Debussy's 
U ombre des arbres, Camille Decreus's Uoiseau bleu, Rachmaninov's 
Zdyes Chorosho and dolgo budaya (sung in Russian), Samuel De Lange's 
Dutch Serenade (sung in Dutch), and Abram Chasins's Thou Art Mine 
(with the composer at the Piano). The aria Ah, non credea mirarti 
from Bellini's La Sonnambula brought the recital to a close. 

The Second Faculty Recital was performed jointly by Miss Lucile 
Lawrence and Mr. Carlos Salzedo, Harpists, on the evening of Novem- 
ber 2.4. The programme opened with a group of early works arranged 
for two harps: Pavane, by an unknown composer of the XVIth cen- 
tury. Gavotte des Moutons by Giambattista Martini, Les Tourbillons by 
Frangois Dandrieu, Sarabande by Couperin, and La Joyeuse by Rameau. 
Mr. Salzedo 's Sonata (composed in 192.2.) was played by Miss Lawrence 
at the Harp and Mr. Salzedo at the Piano. The programme was con- 
cluded by Mr, Salzedo 's Pentacle (composed in 192.8), a group of live 
works — Steel, Serenade, Felines, Catacombs, and Pantomime — sugges- 
tively scored for two harps. 



The Third Recital took place on the evening of December 9, when 
Mr. Mieczyslaw Miinz, Pianist, made his first concert appearance at 
the Institute. His program opened with Bach-Busoni's Aria and 
Thirty Variations, followed by Tivo Sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti. 
Josef Hofmann's Suite Antique was next played, eliciting applause for 
both performer and composer. Mr. Miinz continued with a Prelude 
by Liadov, the Schubert-Liszt Soiree de Vienne, No. 6, and Liszt's 
Rbapsodie Espagnole. 

On December 16, Madame Lea Luboshutz, Violinist, will be heard 
in a concert in which she will be accompanied by our student orchestra 
conducted by Mr. Emil Mlynarski and Louis Vvner. Mr. Efrem 
Zimbalist, Violinist, will be heard on January 5, Mr. Abram Chasins, 
Pianist, on January 7, and Mr. Horatio Connell, Baritone, on Jan- 
uary 12.. 


ON NOVEMBER 1 6 Mr. Joscf Hofmann, Pianist, was soloist during 
the Atwater Kent Broadcasting Hour, in New York Citv. On 
November zy and i8 he appeared in Detroit as soloist with the Detroit 
Symphony Orchestra , conducted by Ossip Gabrilowitsch . On Decem- 
ber 5 he was soloist in Washington, D. C, with the Boston Svmphonv 
Orchestra in the third concert of the Beethoven Festival conducted by 
Serge Koussevitzky. Mr. Hofmann will again be a soloist with 
orchestra, on January 2. and 3, when he plays in Cleveland, Ohio, with 
the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra, under Nicolai SokolofF. The 
first of his two New York recitals in Carnegie Hall will take place on 
January 11. 

Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist, was soloist on December 3 in the 
second of the Beethoven Festival concerts by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Washington, D. C. On December 7 he appeared in New 
York as soloist with the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orches- 
tra, with Leopold Stokowski as guest conductor. 

During November Madame Lea Luboshutz, Violinist, gave recitals 
in Lexington and Louisville, Kentucky, on the i4th and 2.5th, while 



on the 2.8th and 2.9th she was soloist with the Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra, playing the Tschaikowsky Concerto for Violin. This was 
her sixth appearance in Cincinnati in the course of five seasons. On 
December 12. Madame Luboshutz played in New York City. On the 
2.1st she will be soloist with the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. In 
January she will tour for five weeks on the West Coast, playing with 
the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra on the ist and md and with the 
Seattle Symphony Orchestra on the 5 th and 6th. A series of recitals 
will keep her in the West until January 2.5 th. 

Mr Mieczyslaw Miinz, Pianist, began his concert season at the 
end of October, playing for the sixth consecutive year as soloist with 
the Toronto Orchestra in Toronto, Canada. Following this he 
appeared in recitals in Whitby, Ontario; Nashville, Tennessee; Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky; New York City; Chester, Pennsylvania; and Balti- 
more, Maryland. His first engagements after Christmas will include 
two recitals in Havana, Cuba, playing en route in Jacksonville, 
Florida, after which he will go to Toronto for a recital. In Boston 
he will be soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, with Kous- 
sevitzky conducting, following which he will appear in recitals in 
Lindsborg, Kansas; Peoria, Illinois; and Winchester and Lexington, 

Mr. Stephen Deak, the first volume of whose Modern Method for 
the Violoncello was published during last season, has now followed this 
with a second volume, which has appeared but recently. The first 
volume, which was addressed particularly to beginners, introducing 
a new and simplified system of technique and treating all the problems 
of fundamental playing, was made particularly interesting by a pref- 
ace written by Felix Salmond. In the second volume Mr. Deak has 
concerned himself with an approach to advanced playing, devoting 
attention to such problems as the various usages of the thumb, tone 
production, the art of bowing, and the like. The twenty-nine studies 
were, like those in the first volume, especially written by Mr. Deak 
and are accompanied by many useful illustrative exercises. 


The Library 

"When you are writing for children, do not assume a style for the occasion. 
Think your best and write your best. Let the whole thing live. ' ' 

— Anatole France. 

HE LIBRARY has putchased a small collection of books especially devoted 
to the general education of our very young students : 

TALES FROM NORSE MYTHOLOGY. R etold and Illustrated by Katha- 
rine Pyle. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. 
These are stories, told many years ago by the Norse people, about the gods they 
worshipped and the gnomes, dw^arfs, and heroes of the very olden times. The eight 
illustrations in colour are made by the author and are particularly appropriate in 
connection with the stories she has related. 

A WONDER BOOK and TANGLEWOOD TALES: For Girls and Boys. By Nathaniel 
Hatvthorne . Duffield and Company, Neiv York. 

These two books are successfully combined in one volume. The ten very charm- 
ing illustrations in colour are by Maxfield Parrish. Hawthorne's portrayal of the 
old Greek myths will appeal to the keen imagination of the child reader. 

TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE. By Charles and Mary Lamb. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York. 

A book which has now become an English classic. Maude and Miska Petersham 
have made attractive illustrations, both in black and white and in colour, for this 

GOLDEN NUMBERS. Kate Douglas Wiggin and N. A. Smith, Compilers. Double- 
day, Doran and Cofnpany, New York. 

These poems are arranged by subject with a page of explanation for each section, 
and the work ranks as one of the best collections of poetry ever compiled for children. 
An introduction on the reading of poetry to children will be of great help to parents 
and teachers. 

THIS SINGING WORLD. By Louis Untermeyer, Collector and Editor. Harcourt Brace 
and Company, Neiv York. 

An anthology of modern poets consisting of over three hundred poems for young 
people. An effort has been made to obtain selections that will appeal to all sorts of 
children and awaken in them an interest in modern poetry. The illustrations, 
mostly in black and white, have been made by Florence Wyman Ivins. 

^Marjorie Winn, Librarian. 


lAusic Calendar 

December 15-31 

15 — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, Toscanini conducting, Academy 
of Music, evening. 

16 — Lea Luboshutz, Violinist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

i6- — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening. 

17 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, under Ernest Schelling, afternoon. 

18 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, under Ernest Schelling, afternoon. 

18 — Choral Art Society in Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Academy of Music, evening. 

19 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski conducting, afternoon. 

15 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. Sivastika Qtiartet and Casimir Quartet. 

■Lo — Hansel und Gretel and Die Puppenfee, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, after- 

lo— Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski, evening. 

XI — Ignace Paderewski, Pianist, Penn Athletic Club Ball Room, evening. 

XI.- — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski, evening. 

Z5 — Philadelphia Orchestra Radio Concert, under Stokowski, 5 to 6 o'clock. 

x6^Philadelphia Orchestra, Alexander Smallens conducting, afternoon. 

zy — Philadelphia Orchestra, Smallens, evening. 

z8— Philadelphia Philharmonic Orchestra, Fabien Sevitzky conducting, Mastbaum 

Theatre, evening. 
19 — Helen Bussinger, MezZoSoprano, Foyer of the Academy of Music, afternoon, 
xg— Choral Society in The Messiah, Academy of Music, evening. 

January 1-15 

2. — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, afternoon. 

3^Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

4- — Elisabeth Rethberg, Soprano, Penn Athletic Club Ball Room, evening. 

5 — Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

5^Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

6 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

7" — Abra^n Chasins, Pianist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

7 — Philadelphia Chamber String Simfonietta, Fabien Sevitzky, Ball Room of the 
Bellevue Stratford, evening. 

9 — Philadelphia Orchestra, under Gabrilowitsch, afternoon. 
10— Jascha Heifetz, Violinist, Academy of Music, afternoon. 
lo^Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

iz — Horatio Connell, Baritone, Casimir Hall, evening. 

13 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

14 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, under Ernest Schelling, afternoon. 

14 — Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, Graduation Recital, Casimir Hall, evening. 

15 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, under Ernest Schelling, afternoon. 

15 — Lohengrin, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 




The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 




Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 4 January, 1931 





Editorial Comment 93 

What Is Wrong With the Piano? Josef Hojinann 95 

German Music Festivals — Summer, 1930 Grace Spojjord 98 

Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts 105 

Opera 105 

The Curtis Symphony Orchestra 106 

Chamber Music 107 

Concert Course Recitals 107 

Radio Broadcasts 107 

Other Events no 

Faculty Activities 112. 

Glimpses of the Institute: 

IX. Entrance Doors to Casimir Hall 115 

Music Calendar 116 


Josef Hofmann, Director 96 

Grace Spofford, Dea^i loi 

The Sv/astika Quartet 108 

Entrance Doors to Casimir Hall 114 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtoms 
Copyright 193 1 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 

Editorial Comment 


HROUGHOUT almost all of the thirty weeks of the school 
year we are accustomed to regard Casimir Hall as an ex- 
clusive and exacting temple for the devoted and unflinch- 
ing worship of Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Debussy, Schubert, 
Mozart, Schumann, and their fellow Masters. But once or twice 
each year, notably on the eve of the customary Christmas recess, the 
devotees of this cult of music stray temporarily from their orthodoxy 
and permit — even welcome! — the invasion of a gayer and more in- 
formal festive spirit into these ordinarily sacred precincts of a soberer 
Muse. On Thursday evening, the sixteenth of last December, the 
date of our latest and most entertaining Christmas party, there was 
to be heard as usual the syncopation whose fervent rhythms replaced 
the more decorous accents of Lieder, chamber music, instrumental 
masterpieces, and the like; but, in addition, there was, this season, a 
novel departure which dispatched us upon our holiday more light- 
heartedly than ever before — an uproarious programme of "Curtis 
Follies" which betrayed hitherto unappreciated talents in the happy 
role of parody among several of our outstanding fellow-members of 
the Institute. 

Only those who suffer from and submit to the arbitrary conventions 
of grand opera could have underscored them so grandiosely as did Hen- 
riette Horle, Edwina Eustis, Albert Mahler, and Alfred De Long, 
accompanied at the piano by Elizabeth Westmoreland, in their pre- 
sentation of a complete opera, agreeably reduced in time to less than 
an hour and yet complete in its devastating array of those universally 
recognized but seemingly unavoidable cliches of the opera stage: the 
prima donna at once soulful and highly coloratura, the tenor leisurely 
expiring but vocally robust, the villain horrible and superlatively 
sinister, and all the rest. This brilliant production was followed by a 
performance by a symphonic orchestra assembled according to strictly 
"modernistic" requirements and somewhat acrobatically conducted 

II 93 I 


by an exotically costumed personage who bore a none too unmistak- 
able resemblance to Dr. Louis Bailly. These together produced 
"sounds" which the genial "master-of-ceremonies," Mr. Gary Bok, 
suggested might be a portion of Alban Berg's imminent JVozz^ck or a 
close relation. Mr. Harry Kaufman and Mr. Abram Chasins col- 
laborated in a four-hand piano "turn" which evoked responsive laugh- 
ter. "Large sounds" were supplied by Irene Singer and Conrad 
Thibault, sung to "timeless verses" by Caesar Finn, more or less 
accompanied by "musics" and pantomime by the Kaufman-Chasins 

The sensation of the evening, however, was produced by the unex- 
pected appearance of the unequalled six-year-old prodigy, Ruth Slum- 
czynski, newly arrived — vm Merion, Pennsylvania — from "darkest 
Poland." Little Ruth, rendered slightly coy and self-conscious by 
this unprecedented appearance in public, nevertheless proved charming 
with her luxuriant blonde curls, large pink hair-ribbon, cherubic 
knees, and starched "party" dress. Youthful "infant" students of 
the Institute, seated close to the stage, were only too clearly over- 
whelmed by Ruth's inimitable stage presence and pianistic fluency. 
Her performances — unfortunately abbreviated ! — of a CIe?72enn Sonatina 
and Chopin's 'Polonaise Militaire were carried out in a clearly recog- 
nizable "conservatory" manner. It is said that there were those who 
perceived a singular resemblance between the features, and even hands, 
of this amazing Polish prodigy and those of a certain "world-famous" 
Polish pianist. It was impossible, however, to make any comparison 
at the time, as we were unable to discover the latter among the audi- 
ence, where we had assumed he would be. Without pressing this 
point unduly, it may still be safely asserted that the combination of 
Ruth's appearance and performance were sufficient to make the epi- 
sode as unforgettable as it was indescribably entertaining. Those 
who were not too weak from laughter proceeded then to the more 
serious business of dancing. In general, the evening's fun was 
thoroughly enjoyed by everyone in the Institute and served admirably 
to forestall any of the dangers indicated by a celebrated adage regard- 
ing "all work and no play " 


What Is Wrong With the Vianol 


VEX at the risk of being accused of evading the issue I wish to 
start with a little story — a story as harmless as it may be 

"Why," queried an agitated student, "did Czerny write so 
many five-fingered exercises?" "Because he hated little children 
so," replied the enlightened teacher. 

Is there not food for thought here? When the question is raised, 
"What is wrong with the piano?" I would reply: There is nothing 
wrong with the piano as an instrument for musical expression, but 
there may be something quite wrong in the way we approach it. 
Considering the fact that the acquisition of a certain amount of technic 
is necessarv if one is to play at all, it is understandable that the value 
of dexterity of fingers, hands and arms is often overstressed, and the 
merits and importance of this particular side of pianism too often 

Suppose some golf Goliath were able to make a 400-yard drive; 
would the direction not be as important as the distance covered? In 
piano study as in golf there is little use in merely covering ground ; one 
should aim always to direct one's progress toward the ultimate goal; 
and the goal to a pianist is the making of music on the piano. 

It is mv firm conviction that one can make good music on the piano 
with comparatively little technic; and there is more artistic merit in 
playing a simple piece well, musically, than attempting to conquer 
technically difficult pieces at the sacrifice of expression. 



Camera Portrait by Albert Petersen 




Without meaning to advise, I would like to point out that piano 
study would be far more popular than it is if students, average players, 
would be permitted to concentrate more on the musical expression of a 
composition, and would be less tormented by pure finger exercises 
which, although necessary, are but a "means to an end," and if over- 
done may often cause an "end to one's means" — musically speaking, 
of course! 

From my own experience I find that too much time is spent on 
purely technical preparation for something that may never materialize 
because technic can be successfully applied to music only if both, so to 
speak, grow up together from their infancy. Although I do not like 
to speak about things which I can do, and less so about things I can- 
not do, yet were I a beginner and had the choice of any of the existing 
music-making instruments, I would select the piano. Why? Because 
the first stages in the study of the piano are by far simpler and easier 
than those of any other instrument I happen to know; thereby making 
it possible for a mere beginner to play a little piece tunefully which, of 
course, is pleasing and satisfying not only to the performer but to his 
neighbors as well! Aside from this the piano is a "complete instru- 
ment" as regards musical expression. It is, so to say, self-sufficient 
because the melody and accompaniment may be produced by the same 

Furthermore the piano commands a musical literature second to 
none; and last but not least the price of the best made piano (small 
size) is but one-third that of a fairly good violin; one-half of a good 
harp; and one-tenth of a small pipe organ. 

I claim, therefore, that the piano as a music-making instrument is 
qualified to fill the requirements of the professional musician as well 
as the needs of an average music lover. It has done so in the past; it 
is doing so now; and it will do so in the future, I am convinced. 


German Nlusic Festivals — Summer, 1930 


[|N GREAT CITIES like Ncw York, Philadelphia, London, and 
Berlin, with their deafening roar and breath-taking speed, 
one rushes to the opera for entertainment . . to snatch a 
few moments of artistic enjoyment for the purpose of diver- 
sion. How different is the appeal of opera in the festival cities of 
Bayreuth, Salzburg, and Munich! Here, amongst beautiful surround- 
ings, one forgets the clamorous city and revels in cool freshness and 
clear air, calmness and cleanliness. Bayreuth — the pompous town 
lying between the Fichtel Mountains and the heights of Franconian 
Switzerland; Salzburg — one of the most picturesquely situated cities 
on the Continent with its castle-crowned mountains in the midst of 
the Austrian Alps; and Munich — the lovely South German city where 
art and music flourish. In their festivals one is led away from the 
material into an exalted atmosphere where the human soul opens 
itself in joyful receptiveness to spiritual matters. 

The especial significance of this, the 52.nd, year of the Bayreuth 
Festival lay in the fact that Toscanini conducted. Pan-Germanists 
are said to have anticipated with alarm what might happen to their 
Teutonic idol in the hands of an Italian. But those who came to 
scoff remained to pray. The success of Toscanini 's conducting of 
TannJj'auser and Tristan und Isolde has been made known to everyone 
through the reports of the press. It seemed as if the town of Bay- 
reuth felt the significance of the Italian maestro' s coming. Larger 
than usual seemed the groups of townspeople lining the streets, the 
entire distance of a half-mile from the town to the Festspielhaus, situ- 
ated on its hill. More brilliant than for many a year seemed the scene 
outside the Festspielbaiis, with friends greeting friends in a medley of 
German, French, Italian, and English heard on every hand, and sug- 
gesting a veritable League of Nations. The trumpeters summon the 



audience. The people file into the theatre through the many entrances. 
The intense hush that prevails before the music . . a silence so deep 
that one feels a sanctity . no rustling, no fanning, almost no 


This is not merely music. This is a ceremonial, an approach to a 
shrine. This audience has come on a pilgrimage to honor its hero. 
The tradition of greatness is here. Performances may vary in effective- 
ness, but the people are not disappointed. It is not only at Dr. Muck's 
superb ceremonial of Parsifal, but in all the operas that this spirit is 
manifested. One dear old German and his wife sitting near us had 
attended every one of the Bayreuth festivals since 1876. Devotion to 
Wagner! The power of a personalitv! One need not despair, after 
all, in thinking that personalities are perishing in this standardized 
world, with its card-index systems of behavior and its leveling proc- 
esses which tend to make men equal by pulling down their leaders. 

During the festivals, the visitors overrun the little hotels and the 
townspeople take them into their own homes. They visit the lovely 
old Opera House in quaint rococo style, the new Wagner Museum just 
opened to the public, and — the culminating point of interest! — Wag- 
ner's own home, Wahnfried. "Here where my dreams found peace — 
let me name this house 'peace in dreams'." In the garden are the 
graves of Richard and Cosima Wagner. In the town cemetery are the 
tomb of Franz Liszt (Cosima "s father) and the new grave of Siegfried 
Wagner. The deaths of Cosima and Siegfried within a short four 
months might have meant a cessation of the festival, but there was 
not a single postponement of a performance, and the announcement 
has been made that the festival will be continued next year. What 
the policy will be, no one knows. There are those who wish Bay- 
reuth more progressive. The Bayreuth of 1876 was founded to set an 
example for the production of Wagner's operas. Now it is said that 
they are better presented in two or three other German capitals, and 
probably as well done in several others. Is the mission of Bayreuth 
now to be once more progressive and to produce the music and dramas 
with new resources of staging and lighting that are now available, 

1199 1 


and in the way which Wagner would probably undertake if he were 
alive? Be this as it may, there is no opera house in the world where 
the audience sits in the same complete silence from beginning to end 
of uncut performances. The old spirit of Bayreuth still lives, be the 
singers good or bad, be it Elmendorf, Muck, or Toscanini conducting. 

While Bayreuth is devoted to the genius of one man, Salzburg, the 
birthplace of Mozart, is consecrated not only to Mozart but to various 
other composers and to dramatists. Founded in the gloom of 1917, 
the Salzburg Festival Theatre Society set itself the task of saving suf- 
fering humanity from chaos and of seeking peace and calm in the 
symbols of the drama and music. 

The idea of festival plays in Salzburg was not a new one. It was 
expressed in 1842., on the occasion of the erection of the Mozart monu- 
ment. Later, Richard Wagner thought of a theatre in Salzburg but 
was turned towards Bayreuth by the generosity of the Bavarian royal 
house. Hans Richter expressed the idea at the centenary of Don 
Giovanni in 1887. But it was not until 1917 that the plan was formu- 
lated under the guidance of Max Reinhardt, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, 
Richard Strauss, Alfred Roller, and Franz Schalk. In August 192.0, 
Reinhardt's setting of Everyman, with the cathedral as background, 
inaugurated the festival. As given this summer, the play had the 
same enormous appeal as formerly. A huge project for a modern 
festival building had failed to materialize for financial reasons, but in 
192.2. a new project was realized: the enlargement and alteration of 
the old archiepiscopal riding academy. As converted, the building is 
ample for the requirements of a festival theatre and will serve for a 
long time to come. 

While Mozart's operas are the nucleus of the repertoire, the works 
of Beethoven, Gluck, Richard Strauss, and Donizetti are not excluded 
and dramatic as well as concert offerings lend variety. Salzburg has 
at its disposal the company of the Vienna Opera with its conductors, 
singers, orchestra, and stage settings. This makes possible an ex- 
traordinary ensemble. One newly-staged and re-studied opera is given 

1100 ]} 


bot02raph by Kube^-KembraTldt 




each year. The Marriage of Figaro was this year's offering. As con- 
ducted by Clemens Krauss, under the stage direction of Lothar Wallen- 
stein and with scenery designed by Alfred Roller, who is planning 
the stage scenes for The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, it proved 
to be Mozart as one had dreamed he should be, but which, hitherto, 
one had never found realized. Rosenkavalier, under the same auspices, 
was the quintessence of perfection. In addition to operas and dramas, 
one may hear the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra play Mozart Sere- 
nades in the courtyard of the Prince- Archbishop's Palace at nine o'clock 
in the evening, by candlelight . One may hear masses in the Cathedral . 
I heard a noble performance of Bruckner's Mass in F minor on Sunday 
evening, having that morning listened to a programme of Johann 
Strauss — overtures, marches, and waltzes — played so well by the Vienna 
Philharmonic as to lift this music into the realm of high art. 

The town of Salzburg is itself so lovely that one could enjoy that 
alone, with its splendid situation and delightful architecture, an heroic 
and yet charming city. Hugo von Hofmannsthal wrote: "The coun- 
try of Salzburg is the heart of Europe's heart. It is situated midway 
between north and south, between plain and mountain; it lies as a 
huge structure between the rural and the urban, the ancient and the 
modern, the baroque princely and the charmingly eternal rustic. 
Mozart is the exact expression of all this. Middle Europe has no 
spot of more fascinating beauty, and nowhere but here had Mozart's 
birthplace to be." One may visit the house where he was born in 
1756, with its collection of Mozart treasures, or see the Mozarteum, a 
structure combining both concert hall and Academy of Music which 
was built in memory of the composer, and find even the little house — 
now brought from Vienna! — in which Mozart composed The Magic 
Flute . 

While Bayreuth concentrates on Wagner, and Salzburg, for the most 
part on Mozart, the Munich Festival consists of a combination of 
both Masters. Munich is the centre of the intellectual and artistic 
life of South Germany. Although a city of 800,000 inhabitants, there 
is not the whirl of modern life. The people are diligent, industrious, 



and liberal-minded. They love art in response to a deep spiritual 
need. Ludwig I, that splendor-loving prince w^ho devoted himself 
to the embellishment of the city, is responsible for the Munich which 
we know today and which is almost unrivalled for its architectural 
magnificence. In the Residence Theatre, built in 175 1 , and remarkable 
for its rococo style, are given the Mozart operas. In the Prince Regent 
Theatre, built in 1901 on the model of Bayreuth, are given the Wagner 
music-dramas. The season of 1930 brought huge audiences, due 
partly to the great number of tourists in Munich on their way to 
Oberammergau. The NLagic Flute and The Flymg Dutchman, which 
were my share of the festival, showed the solid principles on which 
Munich performances are based. 

A far cry from opera was being presented in Munich in the revolu- 
tionary work, Totenjnal (To The Dead'), a dramatic and choral vision 
of word, dance, and light, conceived by Albert Talhoff . This mighty 
work of choral stage art is impressive through sheer ugliness. A 
"klang"-rhythmic orchestra of percussion instruments, a commenting 
chorus, spectacular lighting effects produced by a new color instrument, 
and the dancing by Mary Wigman and her groups — all was contrived 
unlike any form of art. A look at the score shows twenty parts for 
the "klang" orchestra, and, directly beneath, parts for the dance, 
for the word, for the light. The entire scheme is evolved in the mind 
of the composer and noted with accuracy in the partitur. This tribute 
in memory of all who fell in the Great War may be art or not. Some 
call it humbug. Some call it the beginning of a new art-form. In 
any case, one cannot ignore the deep earnestness from which the 
vision was born. This daring and interesting experiment falls in 
line with the powerful movement of rhythmic art and dancing which 
has filled Germany. 

One must mention the music of the Passion Play at Oberammergau, 
if only because it is rarely mentioned in accounts of the play. This 
ancient religious play was instituted in 1634 on the part of the pious 
little community, which, having been delivered from the plague, 
vowed to commemorate the fact by giving the play every ten years 



thereafter. In 1811, Rochus Dedler, the schoolmaster in Oberammer- 
gau, wrote music for many passages of the text and by 182.0 this was 
established in almost the form which we know today. Some revisions 
have been made, but Dedler 's spirit has been maintained. Dedler was 
influenced by Mozart and the music has a certain simplicity and sin- 
cerity in keeping with the play itself. The Orchestra consists of 
hfty musicians; the Choir of twenty-six female and nineteen male 
singers. Since no outsider is allowed to have a hand in the play, it is 
no small task to train the orchestra and chorus, recruited entirely from 
amongst the 2.2.00 inhabitants of the town, of whom some 700 take 
part in the Play. 

Thus in Germany and Austria, from the times of the Minnesinger 
and the hrst historical gathering on the Wartburg, celebrated in 
Tajinhauser, through the days of the Meistersinger and their meetings 
in the towns and cities of Germany, down to these present-day cele- 
brations of music which is closer to our own time, there runs a definite 
interest in music festivals. It goes without saying that those men- 
tioned here are only a few out of the many which are held else- 
where in Germany and in other countries of Europe. There are 
of course practical advantages in the continuation of such festivals, 
with the opportunities they provide for hearing much fine music under 
excellent conditions; but beneath all this, there is evidenced a singular 
hold which they exercise on the people who attend them with devotion 
year after year, and the thoughtful person will wish to discover the 
reason underlying this. To us it seems that the answer lies in the 
fact that these music-loving people regard their art-experience as 
something which is a necessity to them and not merely a luxury to 
be indulged in superficially; out of the suffering which has contributed 
so much to their national strength of character there has arisen a deep 
spiritual need which must be satisfied, and which does find a convincing 
degree of satisfaction, so it seems, in the natural expression of human 
emotion which attends these great festivals of music. 

f 1041 

Student Activities 


HE THIRD of the Students' Concerts in Casimir Hall for the 
current season was presented on the evening of January 14, 
when Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, a student of Mr. Josef Hof- 
mann, appeared in a graduation recital. Her programme 
was opened with a group consisting of Haydn's Variations in F minor 
and Johannes Brahms's hitermezXP, Opus 118, No. i, IntermezXP, Opus 
118, No. X, Capriccio, Opus 76, No. i, Intermezzo. Opus 118, No. 6, 
and Capriccio, Opus 76, No. 8. This was followed with Schumann's 
Sonata in G Minor, Opus 2.1. The concluding group was made up of 
Chopin's Etude in C sharp minor. Opus 2.5, No. 7, Valse in A flat major, 
Opus 64, No. 3, and Etude in C minor, Opus 10, No. 12.; Claude 
Debussy's La Cathedrale engloutie. La serenade interrompue, and Eeux 
d" Art i flee \ and Polonaise No. 2 in E major, by Liszt-Busoni. 

A Fourth concert will be given on January 2.0 by violin students of 
Mr. Efrem Zimbalist. On February 11 violin students of Madame 
Vera FonarofF will be heard. 


CONTINUING the programme of affiliation between The Curtis 
Institute of Music and The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, 
artist students of the Voice Department of the Institute have partici- 
pated in two operas which were recently produced and which have 
brought the first half of the opera season to a close. On December 
II Massenet's Thais was the Eighth Performance, conducted by Eu- 
gene Goossens. In this work the four well-known major artists, 
John Charles Thomas, Ivan Dneproff, Ivan Steschenko, and Marianne 



Gonitch, were supported by four Curtis Institute students: Agnes 
Davis, Soprano, as Crohyle\ Rose Bampton, Contralto, as Mjr/^/^; Jose- 
phine Jirak, Contralto, as Alhine; and Alfred De Long, Baritone, as A 

The Ninth Performance was a special matinee production of Hum- 
perdinck's Hansel und Gretel, conducted by Emil Mlynarski, on De- 
cember 2.O. In this work the entire cast, with the one exception of 
Chief Caupolican, was made up of artist students of the Institute: 
Paceli Diamond, Me'::xo Soprano, as Hansel; Natalie Bodanskaya, 
Soprano, as Gretel; Edwina Eustis, Contralto, as The Witch; Selma Aman- 
sky. Soprano, as Gertrude; Edna Corday, Soprano, as The Sandman, 
and Irene Singer, Soprano, as The Dewman. 

The next performance by The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company 
will be Wagner's Lohengrin, on January 15, when Institute artist 
students will again participate. 


ON WEDNESDAY evening, January 2.8, The Curtis Symphony Or- 
chestra will be heard by The Philadelphia Forum in its first 
concert of the season. Emil Mlynarski will conduct and the assist- 
ing artists will by Joseph Levine, Pianist, a student of Mr. Josef 
Hofmann, and Fiorenzo Tasso, Tenor, a student of Mr. Emilio de Go- 
gorza. The programme will be: Symphony No. 2, in D major, by 
Brahms; the first movement from the Concerto in D minor, for Piano and 
Orchestra, by Anton Rubinstein; the Overture-Fantasy — Romeo and 
Juliet, by Tschaikowsky; Debussy's Prelude a U apres-midi d'un Faune 
and the Nocturne, Fetes; the Aria — Vesti la giubba, for Tenor and 
Orchestra, from Leoncavallo's Pagliacci; and Wagner's Overture to 

This first concert of The Curtis Symphony Orchestra will be fol- 
lowed by appearances in Baltimore on February 8 and Washington 
on February 9. Later concerts will be given in Bryn Mawr and 

f 1061 



THE SERIES of Chamber Music recitals by artist students of The 
Curtis Institute of Music, presented by the Pennsylvania Museum 
of Art at Fairmount, under the artistic direction of Dr. Louis Bailly, 
will be continued with the third concert, to be given on the evening 
of Sunday, February i. At this time the Swastika Quartet will play 
Beethoven's String Qjiartet in E minor, Opus 59, No. 2. and Claude De- 
bussy's String Qiiartet, Opus 10. The concluding work will be Mo- 
zart's Qiiintet in E flat major for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, and 
Horn (Kochel 452.)^ ^o be played by Joseph Levine, Isadore Gold- 
blum, James Collis, William Santucci, and Henry Whitehead. A 
dress rehearsal of this programme will be open to student and faculty 
members of the Institute on the afternoon of January 2.9. 


THE CURTIS Institute continues in its presentation of a course of 
twenty-five concerts before schools, colleges, clubs, and similar 
groups. The following two recitals have been the most recent to 
take place: 

December 13 — George School, George School, Pennsylvania: 
Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, a student of Mr. Josef Hofmann; Fiorenzo 
Tasso, Tenor, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza; Paceli Diamond, 
MeZ.Zo Soprano, a student of Miss Harriet van Emden; and Joseph 
RubanofF, Accompanist, a student of Mr. Harry Kaufman. 

January 7 — Marywood College, Scranton, Pennsylvania: Jeanne 
Behrend, Pianist. 

Further appearances in the near future will occur on January 16 at 
Point Pleasant School, Point Pleasant Beach, New Jersey; on Febru- 
ary 3 at the Contemporary Club, Trenton, New Jersey; and on Febru- 
ary 4 at State Teachers' College, West Chester, Pennsylvania. 


THE SERIES of twenty radio concerts being given this season by the 
artist students of The Curtis Institute of Music continues to be 
heard over thirty-one stations of the Columbia Broadcasting System 



by Kubey-Rembrandt 




on Friday afternoons from 4 o'clock to 4:45, Eastern Standard Time. 
The Fifth Programme was heard on December 5, when Gabriel 
Faure's Piano Qiiartet in C minor ^ Opus 15, was played by Jennie Robinor, 
Piano, Paul Gershman, Violin, Leonard Mogill, Viola, and Adine 
Barozzi, Violoncello, the ensemble being under the artistic direction 
of Dr. Louis Bailly. Wilbur Evans, Barifone, accompanied by 
Elizabeth Westmoreland at the Piano, contributed the following 
group of songs: Tho' Not Deserving, by Caldara, Respighi's Nebbie, 
Tschaikowsky's None Buf the Weary Heart (with 'cello obbligato 
played by Orlando Cole), Serenade, by Brahms, Sidney Homer's 
P^equiem, and McDowell's Thy Beaming Eyes. The programme was 
ended with the playing of Popper's Kequiejn for Three Violoncelli, per- 
formed by Howard Mitchell, Katherine Conant, and Frank Miller, 
accompanied at the Piano by Sara Newell. 

On December 12. the Sixth Programme was presented again in 
three groups. Ladislaus Steinhardt, Violin, accompanied by Joseph 
Rubanoff, was heard in the First Movement of Lalo's Symphonie Es- 
pagnole and an arrangement of Walther's Preislied from Wagner's 
Die Meistersinger. The following songs were sung by Natalie Bo- 
danskaya, Soprano, with Vladimir SokolofF as Accompanist: Torelli's 
Well Thou Knoivest, Joseph Marx's Yesterday He Brought Me Roses, 
Delibes's The Maids of Cadiz, and Cyril Scott's The Ufiforeseen. The 
concert was concluded by Gounod's Little Symphony for Woodivind 
Ensemble, played by the Curtis Woodwind Ensemble, under the artis- 
tic direction of Mr. Marcel Tabuteau. 

The Seventh Programme, on December 19, included two major 
works in the field of chamber music, both [presented under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Louis Bailly. Hermann Zilcher's The Song of Solotnon, 
Variations for Contralto and Baritone, Piano, and String Quartet, 
had as vocal soloists Ruth Gordon and Conrad Thibault, assisted by 
Jennie Robinor at the Piano and a String Quartet composed of Jacob 
Brodsky, Paul Gershman, Samuel Goldblum, and Adine Barozzi. 
rhe second work to be performed was Camille Saint-Saens's Septet 
in Efiat major, Opus 65 ; those who played it included Cecille Geschich- 



ter, Piano, Samuel Krauss, Trumpet, Iso Briselli and George Pepper^ 
Violins, Leonard Mogill, Viola, Katherine Conant, Violoncello, and 
Jack Posell, Double Bass. 

With the resumption of Institute concerts after the Christmas. 
recess, the Eighth Programme was broadcast on January 9. Agnes 
Davis, Soprano, with Joseph RubanofF as Accompanist, presented the 
following group of songs: Elsa's Dream from Wagner's Lohengrin, 
Cimara's Non piu, Hiie's J' ai pleure en reve, Strickland's My Lover is a 
Fisherman, Quilter's Go Lovely Rose, and The Bird of the Wilderness, 
by Horsman. The second portion of the concert consisted of Men- 
delssohn's Octet in E flat major. Opus 2.0, for Strings, played by Paul 
Gershman, Gama Gilbert, James Bloom, and Benjamin Sharlip, 
Violins, Max AronofF and Leon Frengut, Violas, and Orlando Cole 
and Frank Miller, Violoncelli. 


FREQUENT Students' engagements outside of the Institute continue 
to take place. On December 2.1 the Connell Vocal Quartet sang- 
at the Huntingdon Valley Country Club, in the afternoon, while in: 
the evening, Victoria Murdock, Harpist, played in the Central Metho- 
dist Episcopal church of Frankfort and Isabel Ibach, Harpist, appeared 
in a trio at the Fifth Street Methodist Church of Harrisburg. . . . 
On December 2.3 the Connell Vocal Quartet, assisted by Sylvan Levin, 
Pianist, presented a half-hour's programme over WCAU from 6:30- 
to 7:00 as the first in a series of weekly broadcasts sponsored by the 

Philadelphia Memorial Park On the evening of December 

2.8 Jorge Bolet, Pianist, played at the home of Mrs. Oscar Mertz in. 
Germantown. On the same day Marie Buddy, Soprano, sang over 
WHAT during the Public Ledger Hour. . . . Daniel Healy, Tenor, 
achieved conspicuous success as one of the leading soloists in The- 
Philadelphia Choral Society's presentation of Handel's Messiah in 
the Academy of Music on December 2.9. .. . Agnes Davis, So- 
prano, Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, Paul Gershman, Violinist, 
and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanist, shared the Philadelphia Memorial. 
Park broadcast over WCAU on the evening of December 30. 

f 1101 


An interesting performance was that of Samuel Barber's Serenade 
for String Quartet by the Swastika Quartet on the evening of January 
4, at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Drinker, Jr., in Merion. 
Rose Bampton, Contralto, was soloist at this time in Brahms's Alto 
Rhapsody. . . . Carl Weinrich, organist of the Church of the Holy 
Communion of New York City is continuing the recital schedule 
planned for this season by the late Lynnwood Farnam. On the Sun- 
day afternoons and Monday evenings of January Mr. Weinrich is, 
giving four programmes of modern organ music. On January 4 and 5, 
he played works by E. d'Arba, Charles Tournemire, Marcel Dupre, 
Leo Sowerby, and T. Tertius Noble; while on January 11 and 11, he 
continued with music by Oliver Horsley Gotch, Jean Roger-Ducasse, 
Dupre, Sowerby, and Tournemire. The third recital will be on Janu- 
ary 18 and 19. In the fourth programme, on January 2.5 and 2.6, the 
American composer represented will be Ernest Zechiel, of the Insti- 
tute's Department of Composition. . . . On January 6 the Swastika 
Quartet, Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, and Elizabeth Westmoreland, 
Accompanist, were heard in the Philadelphia Memorial Park radio 
broadcast over WCAU. . . . Celia Gomberg, Violinist, and Eugene 
Helmer, Accompanist, played for the Baldwin School of Philadelphia 
on the morning of January 8. . . . Daniel Healy, Tenor, Katherine 
Conant, Violoncellist, and Florence Frantz, Pianist and Accompanist, 
participated in the Philadelphia Memorial Park's broadcast over 
WCAU on January 13. . . . V3.CQ\\T)i2im.ondi, Mez,^o Soprano, Robert 
Gomberg, Violinist, and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanist, provided the 
musical programme at the annual meeting of the Bnai Brith Jewish 
Lodge at the Manufacturer's Club on the evening of January 14. 

Fiorenzo Tasso, Tenor, has been singing every evening during the 
Freihofer Hour, over WCAU. . . . Eugene Ramey, Tenor, has been 
engaged as regular soloist at the Park Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Philadelphia. . . . Ruth Perssion Lieberman, Violinist, 
formerly a student at the Institute, has won high praise for her recent 
successful appearances in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in recitals of violin 
solo and chamber music on November 2.3 and December 7. 


Faculty Activities 


ouRTH in this season's series of Faculty Recitals in Casimir 
Hall was that presented on Tuesday evening, December i6, 
by Madame Lea Luboshutz, Violinist, assisted by an Or- 
chestra composed of students of The Curtis Institute of 
Music conducted by Mr. Emil Mlynarski and Louis Vyner, a student 
of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting. Madame Luboshutz first played 
Ludwig Spohr's Concerto, No. 8, in A minor (Gesangscene), with the 
orchestral accompaniment under the direction of Louis Vyner. Then 
followed Jules Conus's Concerto in E minor and Tschaikowsky's C(?^- 
certo in D major. Opus 35, both of which were accompanied by the 
orchestra conducted by Mr. Mlynarski. 

The recital by Abram Chasins, Pianist Composer, on Thursday even- 
ing, January 8, was Fifth in the series. Mr. Chasins's programme was 
novel in its arrangement and in some of its offerings. Bach's Chro- 
matic Fantasy and Fugue in D minor and Mendelssohn's Variations 
Serieuses were the opening numbers. Then followed a new compo- 
sition by Mr. Chasins, Fairy Tale, played from manuscript, for the 
first time in public, and six of his Preludes, introduced two seasons ago. 
Stdndchen by Strauss-Godowsky and Liehesleid by Kreisler-Rachmani- 
nov were interesting transcriptions. The remainder of the concert 
was devoted to works of Chopin — six Preludes, Opus 2.8, the Nocturne 
in D flat major. Opus 2.7, No. 2., and the Scherbo in C sharp minor. 
Opus 39. 

On Monday evening, January 11, Mr. Horatio Connell, Baritone, 
appeared in the Sixth Recital. Collaborating with Mr. Connell were 
Helen Jepson, Soprano, Daniel Healy, Albert Mahler, Eugene Ramey, 
Tenors, and Alfred De Long, Clarence Reinert, and Walter Vassar, 
Basses. Mr. Ellis Clark Hammann was at the Piano. In Mr. Con- 
nell' s first group were Mozart's A Warning, Haydn's ''She Never Told 
Her Love,'' Handel's Recitative and Aria: "/ Rage" and "0 Ruddier 
than the Cherry'' from Acis and Gelatea, Arthur Coquard's Hai Luli, 

f 1121 


Reynoldo Hahn's UHeure Exquise, and Erlkonig by Karl Loewe. The 
second portion of the programme was devoted to Beethoven's Sechs 
Lieder von Gellert: Bittefi, Die Liebe des Ndchsfen, Vom Tode, Die Ehre 
Gottes aus der natur Gottes, M.acht und Vorsehung, and Busslied. This 
vs^as followed by the recitative and Aria: ''She Alone Charmeth My 
Sadness' ' from Gounod's Irene, and the concluding work was Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Peasant Cantata (We Have a Fine Netv Master Here^, 
for Soprano, Bass, and Chorus. 

The next Faculty Recital will be that presented on Monday even- 
ing, January 19, by Mr. Felix Salmond, Violincellist. 


MR. JosEF HoFMANN, Pianist, appeared in Cleveland on Janu- 
ary 2. and 3 as soloist with the Cleveland Symphony Or- 
chestra, conducted by Nicolai Sokoloff. The first of his two New 
York recitals in Carnegie Hall occurred on Sunday afternoon, January 
II. Mr. Hofmann will give a recital in Constitution Hall, in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on January 17 and will be soloist with the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra, under Frederick Stock, on January 2.3, 2.4, and 
2.7. This will be followed by a recital in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
on January 2.8. 

Miss Lucile Lawrence and Mr. Carlos Salzedo, Harpists, con- 
tributed to the first concert given this season by the League of Com- 
posers, on December 10, at Town Hall, New York. The concert, which 
included works by Roger Sessions, Darius Milhaud, Paul Hindemith, 
Lazare Saminsky, Heinrich Kaminsky, Marion Bauer, Arnold Bax, 
and Felix Petyrek, ended with Mr. Salzedo's Concerto for Harp and 
Seven Wind Instruments . The solo part was played by Miss Lawrence 
and the work was conducted by the composer. 

Mr. Abram Chasins, Pianist-Composer, appeared on Friday, Janu- 
ary -L, in Havana, Cuba, where he participated in a conerrt given by 
the Sociedad Pro Arte Musicale in memory of its founder, Mme. 
Aria V. de Albarran. In addition to playing a number of compo- 
sitions for piano solo, Mr. Chasins was assisted by a Symphony Or- 
chestra in a performance of his Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. 

f 113 1 


Photograph by W. H. Hoedt 



Glimpses of the Institute 


URING the past month a volume has found its way into 
The Library which will prove of interest and great help to 
those members of the Institute community who may desire 
a greater familiarity with the numerous works of art to 
be found in The Curtis Institute of Music. The book is entitled C<^/-<^- 
log of Works of Art at The Curtis Institute of Music and its contents, con- 
sisting of thirty-seven closely typewritten pages, present exhaustively 
and interestingly a wealth of information about the paintings, etch- 
ings, lithographs, and watercolors, the sculpture, the wrought iron, 
the oriental rugs, the tapestries and embroideries, and the furniture 
.... which all exercise a pervasive and subtle influence on those 
who move about among them. The credit for assembling this mate- 
rial, with its ample descriptive notes, — a task more difficult than one 
might at first imagine — goes to Miss Elsie Hutt, secretary to Mrs. Bok. 
Most of the works of art have been gathered from other cities and 
countries, and many of them are by no means contemporary in origin; 
it is pleasant to reflect that one of these classes of works of art was 
produced in our own city and since the founding of the Institute — - 
the wrought iron work. Most of it was executed by Samuel Yellin, 
of Philadelphia. By far the most important piece is the set of en- 
trance doors to Casimir Hall. "This," says the Catalog, "while 
Italian Renaissance in feeling, is, it need scarcely be said, entirely 
original in composition." Mr. Yellin's work may be found in many 
important buildings, churches, and residences, in this country, such 
as the Mountain Lake Singing Tower, at Mountain Lake, Florida; 
the National Cathedral, Washington, D. C; the Federal Reserve 
Bank, the Equitable Trust Company, the Central Savings Bank, the 
J. P. Morgan Library, and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, all 
in New York City; Goodhart Hall, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, 
Pennsylvania; Princeton University Chapel, Princeton, New Jersey; 
and it includes memorial work at Yale University, New Haven, Con- 
necticut and at New York University, New York City. 


Nlusk Calendar 

January 15-31 

15 — Lohengrin, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 

16 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, afternoon. 

16 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

17 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

18 — London String Quartet, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford, afternoon. 

18 — Philadelphia Philharmonic Orchestra, Fabien Sevitzky conducting, evening. 

15 — Felix Salmond, Violoncellist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

io — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

lo — Students of Mr. Efrem Zifnbalist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

2.1- — Paul Robeson, Tenor, Metropolitan Opera House, evening. 

13 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, afternoon. 

X3 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

14 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

z6 — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, Bernardino Molinari conduct- 
ing, evening. 

2.7 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

iS — Curtis Symphony Orchestra with Joseph Levine, Pianist, and Fioren^o Tasso, Tenor, 
(^artist students of The Curtis Institute of Music^ as soloists, Emil Mlynarski 
conducting, Philadelphia Forum, evening. 

19 — Mendelssohn Club with Giuseppe Martinelli, Tenor, evening. 

30 — Philadelphia Orchestra wath Sigrid Onegin, Contralto, Gabrilowitsch conducting, 

30 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

31 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Onegin, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

February 1-15 

I — Swastika Quartet, ivith Joseph Levine, Pianist, Isadore Goldblum, Oboe, James Collis, 
Clarinet, William Santucci, Bassoon, and Henry Whitehead, Horn, (^artist stu- 
dents of The Curtis Institute of Music^ as assisting artists, Pennsylvania Museum 
at Fairmount, evening. 
2. — Philadelphia Orchestra, with Harold Bauer and Olga SamarofF, Pianists, 

soloists, and Gabrilowitsch conducting, evening. 
3 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 
5 — Rigoletto, The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 
6 — Philadelphia Orchestra, with Bauer and Samaroff, Gabrilowitsch, afternoon. 
6 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

7 — Philadelphia Orchestra, with Bauer and SamarofF, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 
8 — Richard Crooks, Tenor, Penn Athletic Club Ball Room, evening. 
10 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 
II — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, Ernest Schelling conducting, 

II — Students of Madame Vera Fonaroff, Casimir Hall, evening. 
IX — Philadelphia Orchestra, Children's Concert, Ernest Schelling conducting, 

13 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, afternoon. 
13 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 
14 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 
15 — London String Quartet, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford, afternoon. 

f 1161 



The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 



Rittenhouse Square 
Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 5 February, 193 1 





Art and Its Aesthetic Significance: Inspiration in the Conception 

of the Work of Art Kosario Scalero 12.1 

A Note on Beethoven's Sonatas for Piano and Violin 

Boris Goldoiusky 134 
Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts 138 

Opera 138 

The Curtis Symphony Orchestra 139 

Chamber Music 140 

Concert Course Recitals 141 

Radio Broadcasts 141 

Other Events 142. 

Faculty Activities 144 

The Library 146 

Music Calendar 148 


Rosario Scalero, Head of the Department of Composition 12.0 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtones 
Copyright 1931 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 


mera Portrait hy Albert Petersen 

ROSARIO SCALERO, Head of the Department of Composition 


Art and Its Aesthetic Significance: 




iiN coN^siDERiNG any poetry in order to determine what makes 
us feel it as such, we discern, at first, two elements which 
are constant and necessary: a complex of images and a 
sentiment which animates them. Let us recall, for ex- 
ample, the immortal verses of Virgil where the meeting of Aeneas and 
Andromache is described. There we find images of persons, things, 
attitudes, gestures, and sayings which do not stand as history or 
criticism of history, and which are neither given or learned as such. 
But through them all there flows sentiment, a sentiment which does 
not belong to the poet any more than it does to us, a human sentiment 
of pungent memories, of shuddering horror, of melancholy, of longing, 
of tenderness, even of something which is childish and at the same time 
pious, of something inexpressible in logical terms, which only poetry 
can fully tell. In other words, the sentiment of the poet has been 
converted to that complex of images and has become "contemplated 
sentiment", a sentiment clarified and sublimated. 

Therefore poetry can be called neither sentiment nor image, nor the 
sum of the two, but "contemplation of sentiment", or "lyrical 
intuition", or "pure intuition" — which is the same — , inasmuch as it 
is clear of any historical or critical reference to the reality or the non- 
reality of the images of which it is woven, and captures the pure 
throb of life in its ideality. 

Certainly we may find in this poetry other things besides these 
two elements and the synthesis of the one into the other. But either 
they are mingled as extraneous elements — considerations, exhorta- 



tions, allegories — or they are those same "sentiment" images detached 
from their connections, considered from the material side and recon- 
structed as they were before the poetical creation. In the first case, 
they are unpoetic elements which are only introduced and aggregated; 
in the second case, they are deprived of poetry, that is to say, they are 
made unpoetical by the reader who is unresponsive, or who for the 
time being has been rendered so because he has lost sight of the 
poetry either through his inability to maintain himself in its ideal 
atmosphere, or because of his concentration upon certain practical and 
legitimate aims, such as that of historical research, which reduce 
the poetry to the state of a mere document or instrument. 

What has been said of poetry holds true for all the other arts — 
for painting, for architecture, for music; since, when one is debating 
this or that spiritual work in its relation to art, one is compelled to 
stand by the dilemma : either it is a lyrical intuition or it is some other 
thing equally worthy, but not art. If painting were an imitation or a 
reproduction of given objects, as it sometimes has been postulated, 
then it would not be art but simply a mechanical and a practical 
thing. If painters were mere assemblers of lines, lights, and colors, 
with a cleverness for expedients and effects, then they would be techni- 
cal inventors and not artists. If music would consist of mere similar 
combinations of sounds, or of contrapuntal devices devoid of a de- 
termined expressive aim, or of mere arithmetical association of sounds, 
or if it were — still worse! — the result of a premeditated theory reject- 
ing the principle that art is above all an activity derived from an 
acquired practice, then the paradox of Leibnitz of composing scores 
without musical disposition might be realized and it could be feared, 
in consequence, that the very essence of music would be banished. 

That extraneous elements may be blended in this art as in poetry, 
as parte objecti or as parte subjecti, as something existing in fact, or 
derived from the faulty aesthetic judgment of the spectators or 
listeners, is well known. In fact, the true critic of those arts recom- 
mends excluding or not considering those elements of painting, 
sculpture, and music which are called "literary" or "academic", in 
the same way that the critic of poetry recommends that we search for 
"poetry" and not let ourselves be led astray by mere literature. The 



connoisseur of art goes straight to the heart of poetry and feels its 
throb in his own; and where that throb is still, he denies that poetry 
is there, and sees what and how many are the other things, accumu- 
lated in the work of art, which usurp its place, even though they may 
be valuable from the viewpoint of virtuosity or learning, nobility of 
intention, flexibility of talent, or pleasantness of effects. The one 
who is not a connoisseur of art loses himself with such things, and 
the error consists not so much in his admiration of them as in his 
admiring them as true painting, sculpture, or music. 

With that conception of "lyrical intuition" given above, art is 
distinct from all other forms of spiritual production. Therefore, in 
rendering those distinctions formal, the following negations are 

(i) Art is not philosophy, since philosophy is the logical thought 
of the universal categories and art is the thoughtless intuition of the 
being; the former goes beyond the image and the latter lives in it as 
its own kingdom. 

(2.) Art is not history, since history makes a distinction of fact 
between reality or non-reality of fact and reality of imagination; 
while art is of pure images. 

(3) Art is not natural science, since natural science is reality 
classified and rendered abstract. 

(4) Art is not the science of mathematics, since mathematics works 
with abstractions and does not contemplate them. 

(5) Art is not a mere plaything of imagination, since the play of 
imagination proceeds from images to images, excited solely by a 
need of variety, rest, and diversion; while in art, the imagination is so 
restrained in the conversion of sentiment to clear intuition that often 
the need is felt to call it "fancy" instead of "imagination". 

(6) Art is not sentiment in its immediateness. Virgil, in describing 
the suffering of Andromache and Aeneas, does not suffer or become 
delirious himself, but he tells of that suffering in harmonious verses, 
having made of all those emotions the object of his verses; the senti- 
ments, in their immediateness, are expressed, because if they were not 
expressed, they would not at the same time be perceptible and corpo- 
real facts — or "psycho-physical phenomena", as the positivists call 

1123 1 


them; they would not be concrete, in that they would not exist. 
And Andromache expressed herself in the way that Virgil has 

But this expression, although accompanied by consciousness, 
becomes a simple metaphor when compared with spiritual or aesthetic 
expression which alone really expresses; that is, it gives a theoretical 
form to sentiment and converts it into word, song, or figure. In 
this distinction between "contemplated sentiment", or poetry, and 
"acted" or "suffered" sentiment, lies the virtue attributed to art: 
that of being the liberatrice degli ajfetti, the liberator of the passions, 
and the comforter, and also the aesthetic condemner of those works or 
parts of works in which the immediate sentiment is uncontrolled. 
From this difference, too, is derived that other characteristic which is 
synonymous with poetic expression, namely, its "infinity" opposed 
to its "finiteness" of sentiment and immediate passion: something 
which is also called the "universal" or "cosmic" character of poetry 
and music. In effect, the sentiment that is not experienced in its 
torment, but is contemplated, is seen to diffuse itself in broad circles, 
with infinite resonances, throughout the whole dominion of the soul 
.... which is the dominion of the world; joy and anxiety, pleasure 
and pain, strength and abandonment, gravity and levity, are all 
bound in it, one to the other, and, with closely graduated shadings, 
the one passes over into the other. In this way each sentiment, 
even when preserving its individual physiognomy and its origin and 
dominating motive, is not restricted nor exhausted within itself. 

One of the problems first faced as soon as the work of art is defined 
as a "lyrical image" is the one which concerns the rapport between 
intuition and expression, and the transition from the former to the 
latter. This problem has its correspondent in matters of philosophy. 
For example, there are those of spirit and matter, and — in philosophy 
of the practical — intention and will, and will and action. On that 
basis, the problem is not solvable for the simple reason that when the 
spirit is divided from the body, the will from the action, intuition 
from expression, there is no possible way to proceed from one to the 
other of the two terms. And as to the possibility of reuniting them, 
we are forced to give the reunion a third term, which has been pre- 

1124 I 


sented variously as "God" or the "Unknowable". Dualism leads, 
as a matter of necessity, either to transcendentalism or to agnosticism. 
Soul is soul to the extent that it is body. The will is will to the 
extent that it causes action. Intuition is intuition inasmuch as it is 
at the same moment expression. An image not expressed, ^vhich 
is not word, song, drawing, sculpture, architecture, that is, word at 
least murmured within oneself, song at least resounding in one's heart, 
drawing and color at least seen in fancy and capable of coloring, by 
itself, all the soul, is a non-existant image. Its existence can be 
asserted, but it cannot be affirmed, for the reason that affirmation has 
for its sole evidence the embodiment and expression of an image. 
This philosophical proposition is, after all, common sense. It scoffs 
at those who pretend to have fancied a marvelous picture or a great 
symphony and have only missed putting it down on paper. As, with 
great nicety, it has been said, Kefn tene, verba sequentur: if the verba are 
not, there is not even the res. 

The objections to the identity of intuition and expression are the 
result usually of either psychological illusions or badly analyzed 
cases. In the first instance, one is believed to possess, at every instant, 
concrete and lively images in profusion, when actually there are only 
signs and names of them. In the latter instance, the artist is believed 
to express fragmentarily a world of images lying perfect in his soul, 
while he actually possessed nothing but those fragments and, together 
with them, not that hypothetical world, but, at the most, the aspira- 
tion to it or the hidden labor of it. These objections to the identity 
of intuition and expression are upheld for still another reason: the 
interchange of expression and communication, the latter being distinct 
from the image and its expression. The concern of communication 
is the fixation of intuition and expression on an object, which, 
metaphorically speaking, is material or physical, although this is 
not an instance of a material or physical process but of a spiritual one. 
It is clear that a poem is already a whole when the poet has expressed 
it in words, singing it within himself. By passing on to sing it full- 
throatedly, that others may hear it, or by putting it in writing or 
printing, one enters into a new phase that is certainly of great social 
and cultural importance, of which the character is no longer aesthetic 



but practical. The same thing can be said in the case of the painter or 
composer: the one paints on tablets or canvas, the other realizes his 
musical conception in his score. But the painter could not paint and 
the musician could not compose, if in each phase of their work, 
from the initial sketch to the finishing stroke, or from the first motive 
to the accomplished score, the intuited image, the line and color, 
painted in the fancy, did not precede the stroke of the brush, or the 
motive, the melodies, and the harmonies resounding within the 
musician's soul did not anticipate the action of the musical writing: 
this is so true that when that stroke of brush anticipated the image, 
or that written melody did not correspond to the intuited one, it 
would be erased and replaced by a correction exerted by the artist 
upon his work. 

The point of distinction between expression and communication is 
indeed very delicate and too subtle to be surprised in actual fact, 
because here the two processes alternate very rapidly, generally, and 
appear almost blended; but the distinction is clear in thought, and it 
must be strongly maintained. To waver slightly in attentive con- 
sideration of its importance is to cause confusion between art and 
technique, the latter being something not intrinsic in art but restricted 
to the concept of communication. In general, technique is a knowl- 
edge or complex of knowledges disposed for the practical action, 
and in art, the practical action which moulds materials for the fixation 
or communication. For the performer, it is the knowledge that 
derives, from minimum effort, the utmost of effective action. This 
term technique has been used here on the basis that concepts are 
orthodox and words are used in their strictest meaning. It would 
certainly be a waste of time to dispute the word technique when it is 
employed as a synonym signifying the very artistic work itself; that 
is, in the sense of "interior technique". In this sense, the means of 
expression constitutes expression itself, a principle which also must be 
clearly and strongly maintained. 

The confusion of art with technique, the substitution of the latter 
for the former, is an expedient very much cherished by impotent 
artists. They seek from practical things and practical excogitations 
of "inventions", that help and strength which they do not find 
within themselves. 



The act of communication guided by technique produces, then, 
those material objects called, metaphorically, "artistic" works or 
"works of art" — paintings, sculpture, buildings, and, by more 
complicated processes, musical writings, reproduction and trans- 
mission of sounds, voices, and instruments. But neither these voices 
and sounds nor those evidences of painting, sculpture, and architecture 
are works of art themselves, because works of art truly do not exist 
anywhere else than in the souls which are creating and recreating 
them. In order to avoid any semblance of paradox in this self-evident 
truth of the non-existence of objects and beautiful things, it will 
help to recall the analogous case of the science of economics. This 
science teaches the non-existence of things naturally and physically 
useful, and the existence of only the needs and labor from which 
physical things take metaphorically that adjective. Anyone who 
would attempt to deduce the economic value of things from their 
physical qualities alone would commit a very decided ignoratio elenchi. 

Nevertheless, with the doctrine of an aesthetic character peculiar 
to each art, this error has been made. The classification of the arts 
is merely technical or physical, that is, insofar as the artistic objects 
consist in sound, or color, are chiselled or constructed objects, or those 
which do not seem to find a correspondence in nature. To ask what 
may be the artistic character of each of these arts, what each can or 
cannot do, what class of images are expressed in sound, and what in 
tones, and again what in colors or in drawing, is like asking, in 
economics, which things are to receive a price for their physical 
qualities and which not, and what price must be established for one in 
respect to the others, when it is clear that the physical qualities of 
objects do not come into the question, that everything may be desired 
and required, and one thing receive a greater price than another or all 
others, according to circumstances and needs. Even a Lessing arrived 
at such strange conclusions as that "actions" belong to poetry and 
"bodies" to sculpture. And Wagner began to fancy a complex art, 
capable of uniting — by aggregation — the potency of all "single" arts. 

Now, a "single art" cannot remain independent of other arts. 
Any one with the least artistic sensibility will find in a little verse 
of a poet musical and pictorial and sculptorial strength, and archi- 



tectural structure. The same is true of a painting, which is never a 
matter of sight but always of soul, and which, in the soul, remains 
not only as color but also as sound and word, and even silence, which, 
in its own way, is sound and word. Yet if one attempts to seize 
separately the musical or the pictorial, and so on, these escape and 
are transformed, fusing themselves into unity. Then we experience 
the fact that art is one and does not divide itself into arts; it is one and 
indivisable, not following the technical concepts of art, but the 
infinite variety of artistic personalities and their states of soul. 


WHAT HAS BEEN expounded thus far has had the precise purpose 
of describing in its essentials the capital achievements of recent 
Italian thought as embodied in the aesthetic of Benedetto Croce, the 
great philosopher and teacher of humanity. This conquest has not, 
as has been pointed out by the Master himself, the value of a definitive 
solution of aesthetic problems. In fact, Croce in his breviary of 
aesthetics says: "The further life of the spirit, in renewing and 
multiplying the problem, renders not untrue, but inadequate, the 
preceding solutions, some of which are presupposed and some still 
requiring integration." But one point in Croce's theories remains 
unshakeable: Croce succeeded unassailably in affirming and demon- 
strating, in the field of philosophy, the distinction of the means and 
end of art from the other activities of the spirit. Therefore its 
absolute autonomy and its everlasting character. Consequently, 
the ground on which the activity of art is displayed was cleared of 
many errors and prejudices, and the artist found open a field in which, 
in spite of illustrious examples, from Plato (notwithstanding all his 
renunciation of poetry!), Leonardo, Schiller, Flaubert, to others more 
recent, he has only timidly set his foot. Certainly, when reality is 
idealistically considered as thought in action and art as the first step 
of this creative process, the investigation into how and when are 
expressed the phantoms of poetry, or musical inspirations (which rise, 
who knows, from what remote depths of our soul?), is no longer 
philosophical nor aesthetic, but empirical and abstract. To attempt 
to throw light upon this obscure problem, and to open up this closed 

f 128 1 


circle, which is perhaps the most distressing problem that agitates 
the core of art, at the very source of its life, in order to arrive at the 
impassioned search for the "moment of inspiration", is in our time 
the most absorbing and subtle preoccupation, not simply of the 
philosopher, but of the modern artist, who is the one who really fully 
lives within himself the experiences of art. And it is in fact permis- 
sible to the artist to search for the conception, the intimate mould 
of the work of art, because it is only from the experience of art, not 
understood in a mere empirical sense, that light may come to the 
philosophy of art itself. Therefore let us consider some important 
points, as they have, with great clarity, been formulated by one of 
the closest disciples of Croce — Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, who has 
succeeded in asserting himself with equal strength as an authoritative 
critic and eminent writer and educator. These points, to which we 
will add our own deductions, concern that crucial moment in which 
inspiration gives rise to the conception of the work of art. 

Inspiration, transport, enthusiasm, lyricism: these are various 
names given by us to that phenomenon which is at the very source of 
a work of art. It is the deus in nobis, the celestial muse of the Christian 
poets, the genius, the fancy, of the moderns. By a power which he 
judges superior to himself, bv a synthesis formed in him which he 
cannot decompose and analyze, the artist feels himself exalted. It is a 
state of soul embodied in a feeling of fullness and impetus, pure and 
eager, contemplating and yet impassioned. All the spiritual forces 
are in play and yet their incandescence leaves no shadow. As the 
young Goethe rightly said, "When an artist possesses only a single 
emotion, his heart is filled with it." 

But what emotion is it, if it is evident, as Croce has demonstrated, 
that not all emotions belong to the aesthetic realm? More precisely, 
what happens to the artist in those short moments in which he 
conquers the consciousness of being artist? And what is the stimulus? 
An external or internal cause, a scene from nature or humanity, a 
consciousness of his own sentiments, a hope, a remembrance, a 
suggestion from another work of art, may determine the sudden and 
apparent rising of the impetus. At other times it is impossible to 
identify the apparent and immediate cause; the inspiration seems to 



rise suddenly without motive or pretext. However, in all cases, 
inspiration is given by a "vision", and the excitement accompanying 
it is nothing more than the enthusiastic approval with which he 
welcomes it. 

Since the term "vision" might give rise to the erroneous impres- 
sion that only in art exist visual forms, we shall use the term "figura- 
tion". This term may also include any other manner in which 
inspiration is revealed. In the first place, inspiration is an emotional 
figuration, be it in sounds or forms, or forms and sounds together. 
Is this figuration, or thought, identified with what we have experi- 
enced in morbid hallucinations, or dreams, or the childish, primitive 
imagination? No, on the contrary, it is opposed to this, for a decided 
reason. The inferior or subordinate visions which we have men- 
tioned may be accompanied by sentiments of fright or pain and 
followed by impulsive action; the superior or artistic vision is accom- 
panied by sentiments of approval and is immediately in harmony 
with the desire of the one who experiences it. 

To justify the vision, to submit it to control and to furnish with 
fact a testimony of authority, are the tasks of artistic work. By 
means of it, the subject becomes as an object and creates. That 
is, it creates a reality sui generis, which is not exactly practical since 
it does not directly modify life, nor is it altogether rational since it 
does not formulate it. Because of this, the artist is, for the practical 
man, unfit, for the scholar, ignorant, for the pious, suspicious. But 
he is judged with apprehension by all. He is thought to possess 
mysterious virtues, concealed wisdom, and even to deserve the name 
of prophet or hero. 

Can the emotion of artistic inspiration be compared to the one which 
marks the presentiment, the first intuition of a rational or scientific 
discovery? No, for reasons analogous to the preceding ones, because 
the object of the rational discovery and the possibilities, for instance, 
of the mechanical invention, would, it is supposed, remain identical 
in the world of the positive and possible, even if the individual in 
question would not have succeeded in experiencing the intuition of 
them, and even if no one else would ever have succeeded. On the 
contrary, the artistic inspiration is never disjoint or separate from the 



idea of the indispensability of the inspired individual and precisely 
of that certain individuality. If, with Michel Angelo, it can be 
said that the statue is to be found inside the block of marble, and the 
task of the sculptor consists simply in liberating it from the super- 
fluous stone and unveiling it, it is indeed understood that this very 
statue could not be liberated and unveiled except by that certain 
Michel Angelo, and, without him, it would remain inside of the 
stone forever. Finally, can the emotion of the inspired artist be 
considered in the same class with the emotion of moral inspiration, 
or, more generally, the fervor of the great passions: anger, hatred, 
ambition, love? No, because that artistic emotion is immune from 
eagerness, does not wish to destroy or to possess, does not produce 
good or bad impulses essentially practical of action, so that, limiting 
the field, we find close to the artistic inspiration only those mystical 
states of soul known as "adoration" and "ecstasy". The one and 
the other are immediately differentiated by their respective aims. 
While the contemplation of the mystic, induced in adoration and 
ecstasy, suffices in itself, and is in itself a fully concluded spiritual 
event, artistic contemplation is felt restlessly as the theme of a further 
spiritual development which will then become the work of the artist. 
Hence, on the threshold of this search, artistic inspiration presents 
itself as an interior emotional figuration, doubly affected: by the 
vehement welcome that the artist gives to the vision which has been 
disclosed within him, and by the disconcertment in which he finds 
himself at the irresistible necessity of manifesting, or, as it is said 
exactly, expressing, it outwardly. 

Realization, execution, expression (in the empiric sense), and, even 
if we want, technique or artistic work, or, in strict sense, art, that is 
subordinated and to a certain extent opposed to genius and poetry, or 
more comprehensively, creation: with this term, there is generally 
indicated the decisive moment of the work of art. It is extremely 
complex and consists of operations not all homogeneous, but all 
striving after the same end. Factors of will are in play in a conspicu- 
ous measure; there are employed powers essentially intellectual and 
rational; elements of culture are utilized, even mechanical and pro- 
fessional expedients. But the first inspiration is constantly present. 



Often from that first moment there spring out successively other 
inspired states which revise the initial vision or arouse other ones 
which are apt to integrate, extend, or even transform it, putting in the 
center of the work a subsequent vision in the place of the one from 
which started the initial impetus. This can explain the saying of 
Pascal: "Le genie c' est la patietice." Some artists, in fact, after the 
impulse of the inspiration has been initiated, work with such desire 
of perfection that the vision is always inferior to the accomplished 
work. Hence, the act of realization is rendered extremely difficult 
and painful, because of the constant modification, improvement, 
correction, exerted upon the work of art until the moment when the 
intuition of the work is at last fully realized and expressed. History 
is full of such cases, in which the work of art reached the same per- 
fection, gave proof of the same spontaneity, as that of the one realized 
in a single breath, provided that, as Michel Angelo has said, in 
considering this fact, the pain has been taken away from the work of 
art. Among the most illustrious examples we may recall — with due 
differences in degree — Leonardo, Flaubert, Leopardi, Brahms. 

But in what consists the authenticity of the vision which presents 
itself to the artist? By what character does the inspired figuration 
deserve being realized and need to exist without this necessity being 
deemed mere play or relief or luxury? The inspired figuration, even if 
reduced to the most compact nucleus, manifests itself as a complex of 
form or sound or sight, disposed along a rhythm that is following a 
pleasant series of bodies and spaces, of vibrations and pauses, and 
silences. At the basis of each inspiration there is a rhythm which 
arouses and gathers the timbres, the luminous waves, and those 
which are sonorous; and the artistic atom, almost by analogy to what 
is said of the natural atom, is to be considered above all disposition 
and movement, or movement following a given disposition. 

But who and where is the model to which the artist can make 
adequate his vision? Where does he find the idea, following which — 
to use a current formula — art corrects or perfects or continues or 
separates or surpasses nature? The artist knows that he does not 
accept phantoms, as he does not accept dreams, but instead he chooses 
and selects, improves and explores, in order that the figurations 

f 132 11 


which he adopts and makes legitimate may be the ones of the emotion 
and rhythm revealed as corresponding, in some way, to a model which 
certainly is within him but which does not belong to him any more. 
So that it is not this work of art, or that, which is sublime, and it 
is not in this or that one that the superhuman intervenes, but all art, 
if it is art, is sublime, because all art fixes its gaze upon the marvellous 
and the superhuman. 

And artistic figuration is the one which becomes transfiguration: 
the absolute, formulated by philosophy, revealed by religion, is, then, 
in art, actuated by symbols. It is not superior to everything else, as 
the aesthete wished, and it is not music of the people, as the dying 
Socrates calls it, in the Prologue of the Phaedo, comparing it with that 
very high music which, in his judgment, was only philosophy. 
L'Abbe Bremond said of art, that it aspires to reach prayer. But, 
in its own way, art already reaches prayer, transforming and trans- 
figuring reality into a supreme reality worthy of being accepted and 
deserving of adoration, because through art man, alone among living 
beings, can leave testimony of himself by projecting his individuality 
into the future. We are well aware of the truth that ephemeral 
things pass away: pain and grief, joy and passion, prosperous and 
adverse fortune, the pride of the one and the cry of the other — all 
dragged by the same flood toward the infinity of the centuries. But 
we know also that a power was given to man, a spark of the same 
strength of which God is. He — the man — was then able to giyc a 
form to thought, a voice to soul, a sentiment to the inanimate. He 
knew how to recreate beauty and carry upon the same plane of celestial 
stability frail human events, fixing the fugitive instant in the splendor 
of eternal harmony. 











A Note on Beethoven's Sonatas For 
Piano and Violin 


ijHE TEN SONATAS which Becthoven wrote for the piano and the 
violin will be heard in Casimir Hall during the next few 
weeks.* No attempt will be made here to analyze them for 
their musical contents. We all shall very soon hear them. 
The earlier works possess a simple but irresistible charm, while the 
last two sonatas are among the very finest ever written for the two 

The first three of these works were composed in 1798. The dedi- 
cation to Salieri testifies to the high respect and affection in which the 
teacher was held by the "pupil Beethoven". Their studies were con- 
fined to the art of vocal composition, Salieri being considered one of 
the greatest authorities in this field. 

The Sonatas, Opus 2.3 and Opus 2.4, were originally published to- 
gether as Opus 13 . Count Moritz von Fries, to whom these works are 
dedicated, spent his fortune lavishly upon everything connected with 
music. An excellent business man, he helped Beethoven in his finan- 
cial transactions; it was through the banking house of Fries and Com- 
pany that the composer corresponded with his publishers in England. 
Beethoven also received an annuity from the Count. But the Master 
showed his gratitude in a royal way: the Seventh Symphony bears a 
dedication to Count Moritz von Fries! Unfortunately, the generous 
Count became bankrupt soon afterward. 

The series of Opus 30 (Nos. i, 2., and 3) was dedicated to the 
Emperor Alexander I, who had recently ascended the Russian throne. 
Not everyone could dedicate a composition to a person of such rank; 
special permission had first to be asked. This was obtained, no doubt 
through Rasoumowsky, who, with the ascent of Alexander, had been 
restored to the high position of Russian Ambassador in Vienna. A 

*On the evenings of March 4, 10, and 17. (The Editor) 



valuable present was usually sent to the composer in acknowledgment 
of the dedication. No such present seems to have been bestowed upon 
Beethoven at that time (1802.). In 1815, however, this was remedied. 
All Vienna was under the spell of the Congress. Festivals followed 
one after another. Polonaises were very much in vogue. Beethoven 
therefore composed one (Opus 89) and dedicated it to the Empress 
Elizabeth, Alexander's wife. On this occasion, Beethoven was 
graciously received in an audience by the Empress, and given a mone- 
tary present for the Sonatas as well as for the Polonaise. 

Regarding the dedication of the Sonata, Opus 47, many bitter words 
have been expressed, and unjust criticism bestowed on Rudolph Kreut- 
zer, by many of Beethoven's biographers and by musical historians in 
general. Somehow, they felt, he came to the dedication of the im- 
mortal Sonata by false means and then even failed to realize the honor 
of this; he never played the Sonata, which, he said, was "outrageously 
unintelligible". Let us briefly recall the story of the work and its 
dedication, and perhaps we may see the matter in a different light. 

The Sonata was written for the mulatto Towerbridge, who visited 
Vienna in 1803 • ^^^ ^^ ^^ African father and a Polish mother, protege 
of the Prince of Wales, Towerbridge arrived in Vienna armed with 
excellent letters of introduction from Dresden, where he had played 
in public, and he was brilliantly received in Vienna's highest musical 
circles. A concert was arranged, and Beethoven gave his consent to 
playing a new composition with Towerbridge. 

The Sonata, which originally was to have borne the title: Sonata 
per il pianoforte ed un Violino obbligato, in uno stilo molto concert ant ([uasi 
como d'un concerto — so different from Beethoven's previous Violin 
Sonatas, was well suited to Towerbridge's brilliant and extravagant 
style of playing. Then twenty-four years of age, he must have been 
an excellent artist. Beethoven, in a letter of introduction to the 
Baron von Wetzlar, recommends him highly as a first class virtuoso and 
quartette player. Now, in later years, Towerbridge insisted that the 
manuscript bore a dedication to him and that his relations with 
Beethoven were most friendly until they "quarrelled over a girl". 
Be this as it may, Beethoven was for some reason disappointed in 
Towerbridge, and the work was never dedicated to him. Almost a 



year and a half after the concert with Towerbridge, Beethoven writes 
to the publisher, Nicholas Simrock, referring to the dedication to 
Kreutzer: "This Kreutzer is a dear, good fellow, who during his stay- 
here gave me great pleasure. I prefer his unassuming manner and 
unaffectedness to all the exterieur or interieur of the virtuosi .... as 
the sonata is written for a thoroughly capable violinist, the dedication 
to him is all the more appropriate." 

There is little doubt that Towerbridge has been aimed at here, 
along with the rest of the virtuosi. Beethoven had a strong dislike 
for them, anyway, and used to call them, sarcastically, "passage- 
players" . The point I wish to stress is that the dedication to Kreutzer 
comes undoubtedly out of a warm personal feeling of sympathy for, 
and appreciation of, Kreutzer as an artist. 

It is hardly surprising that Kreutzer himself failed to understand 
the Sonata. It is almost impossible for us to realize the extent to 
which Beethoven's compositions seemed modern a century and a 
quarter ago. No one nowadays would think of ridiculing the first of 
the "Rasoumowsky" quartettes, for example; it is considered one 
of the greatest string quartettes ever written. Nevertheless, it was 
laughed at from Moscow to Edinburgh at that time. Even the Schup- 
panzighs thought that it was a practical joke on the part of the 
composer. Especially the beginning of the second movement, where 
the 'cello has a four bar solo and plays one note fifteen times, was 
thought a rock of offense, and the quartette was unanimously called 
"crazy music". Now, the beginning of the Kreutzer Sonata must 
have seemed the height of extravagance to the professor of the Paris 
Conservatoire. Even at the present date there is, I believe, no sonata 
written for piano and violin which would contain such an unusual 
Introduction. One has an uneasy feeling whenever the violinist 
begins to struggle with this enormously difficult beginning. If 
Kreutzer ever got over the first four bars, then the answer of the piano 
was certainly more than he could endure. What a modulation, 
indeed ! 

Leo Tolstoy, in choosing the Kreutzer Sonata as a title for his fam- 
ous novel, has hit upon one of the most provocative and passionate 
pieces of music ever written. A more correct title, however, would 



have been: "The First Movement of the Kreutzer Sonata". The 
second movement is transcendental music, devoid of all earthly desire. 
Tower bridge writes: "Beethoven's expression in the Andante was so 
chaste that it was unanimously applauded, and the performance had 
to be repeated". The Finale is a bravura-piece and would be far too 
brilliant for the Sonata, Opus 30, No. i, for which it was originally 

In 1812. the famous violinist Jacques Pierre Rode arrived in Vienna. 
Spohr says his playing at that time was cold and that he was "uncer- 
tain in overcoming difficulties". The Sonata, Opus 96, was composed 
for Rode and for Beethoven's royal benefactor and pupil. Archduke 
Rudolph, who was a fine pianist. Beethoven, too, seems to have 
been less satisfied with Rode's playing than he had expected. "We 
would prefer," Beethoven writes to the Archduke, "more brilliant 
passages in the Finale, but they are not in Rode's style and this embar- 
rassed me a little. ' ' Rode and the Archduke played the Sonata for the 
first time in one of the musicales at the Palais Lobkowitz. Prince 
Lobkowitz was one of the greatest musical Maecenas' of all time. 
Much has been written about the way in which music was cultivated 
in his palace. It was there that the first performance of the Eroica 
Symphony took place, with Beethoven conducting the Prince's own 
orchestra. It had to be played three times in succession ! 

Little though the ten Sonatas appear to have been appreciated by 
writers on music, there is not a single one of them which is not worthy 
of the immortal Master. 



Student Activities 


ilHE FOURTH studcnts' Concert for the current season was 
presented in Casimir Hall on the evening of Tuesday, 
January 2.0, by four students of Mr. Efrem Zimbalist. 
Jacob Brodsky played Veracini's Sonata in E minor and 
Glazounov's Concerto in A minor, Opus 82.. Philip Frank followed with 
the Air de Lensky by Tschaikowsky-Auer and Variations on the Last 
Rose of Summer (for violin alone) by Heinrich Ernst. The Concerto in E 
minor by Jules Conus was performed by Paul Gershman. Franklin 
Siegfried brought the concert to a close with Wieniawski's Scher%p- 
Tarantelle, Melodic by Gluck-Kreisler, and Caprice No. 24 by Paganini- 
Auer. At the Piano, in this programme, was Theodore Saidenberg, a 
graduate student of Mr. Harry Kaufman in Accompanying. 

The next Students' Concerts will be presented on March 4 and 10, 
when the first two of a series of three programmes devoted to Beetho- 
ven's Sonatas for Piano and Violin will be given by students of Mr. 
Hofmann, Madame Luboshutz, and Madame Vengerova. 


IN THE Tenth Performance of The Philadelphia Grand Opera Com- 
pany, that of Wagner's Lohengrin, on Thursday evening, January 15, 
artist-students of The Curtis Institute of Music again participated 
when Selma Amansky, Agnes Davis, Ruth Gordon, and Helen Jepson 
sang the parts of the four Pages. 

When Verdi's Rigoletto was produced on Thursday evening, Febru- 
ary 5, roles of varied importance were again sung by artist-students 
of the Institute. With such guest artists as Alexandre Kourganoff, 
John Charles Thomas, Ivan Steschenko, and Josephine Lucchese sing- 



ing respectively the roles of The Duke of Mantua, Kigoletto, Sparafucile, 
and Gilda, the Institute was represented as follows : 

Count Monterone Abrasha Robofsky, Baritone 

Borsa Albert Mahler, Tenor 

Marullo Conrad Thibault, Baritone 

Count Ceprano Alfred de Long, Baritone 

Countess Ceprano Henriette Horle, Soprano 

A Page Ruth Gordon, MezXP Soprano 

Giovanna Paceli Diamond, Mexxp Soprano 

An interesting feature of the presentation of Kigoletto was the 
orchestra, selected from the personnel of The Curtis Symphony 
Orchestra. Sixty of these musicians were in the orchestra pit, under 
the baton of Emil Mlynarski, who conducted the performance, and 
twenty-four were on the stage in the Ball Room Scene of Act I, under 
the direction of Sylvan Levin, Assistant Conductor. 

The next operas to be heard will be Puccini's Madama Butterfly, on 
February 2.6, Gounod's Faust, on March 5, and the double bill of 
Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole and Mascagni's Cavalier ia Kusticana, on 
March 12.. Curtis Institute students will participate in these per- 


MAKING its debut for the season in a concert before The Phila- 
delphia Forum in the Academy of Music, on Wednesday even- 
ing, January 2.8, The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by 
£mil Mlynarski, has followed this with out-of-town appearances in 
Baltimore, on Sunday evening, February 8, and in Washington, on 
Monday afternoon, February 9. In Baltimore the orchestra played 
Brahms 's Symphony No. 2, in D major, Rachmaninov's Symphonic 
Tone-Poem, Die Toteninsel, Richard Strauss's Symphonic Tone-Poem, 
Don Juan, and Smetana's Overture to The Bartered Bride. The Rachmani- 
nov work was conducted by Sylvan Levin, student of Mr. Emil 
Mlynarski in Conducting, while Mr. Mlynarski conducted the bal- 
ance of the programme. Artist-students of the Institute who ap- 
peared as soloists with the orchestra were Joseph Levine, Pianist, a 
student of Mr. Josef Hofmann, playing the First Movement of Tschai- 



kowsky's Concerto in B flat minor ^ and Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, a 
student of Madame Marcella Sembrich, singing the Aria — Si, mi 
chiamano Mimi, from Puccini's La Boheme. 


In Washington the orchestra repeated the works by Brahms, 
Strauss, and Smetana, as part of the programme, which, on this 
occasion, was conducted entirely by Mr. Mlynarski. In this concert 
the artist-students of the Institute who were heard as soloists were 
Carmela Ippolito, Violinist, a student of Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, playing 
the First Movement of Tschaikowsky's Concerto in D major, and Con- 
rad Thibault, Baritone, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza, singing 
the Aria — Diane impitoyable, from Gluck's Ipbigenie en Aulide. 

Later in the month, on Monday evening, February 13, The Curtis 
Symphony Orchestra will give a fourth concert, for Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege, in Bryn Mawr. A fifth, and last, appearance will be in 
Philadelphia, in the Academy of Music, on April i. 


AN AUDIENCE of 2.,2.i6 pcrsous was present in the Pennsylvania 
Museum of Art, at Fairmount, in the third Chamber Music 
concert to be presented this season by artist-students of The Curtis 
Institute, on Sunday evening, February i . As announced in a previous 
issue, the programme included Beethoven's String Quartet in E minor. 
Opus 59, No. 2., Debussy's Quartet in G ?ninor. Opus 10, and Mozart's 
Quintet in E flat major for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn, and Bassoon, 
Kochel No. 452.. Dr. Louis Bailly, Head of the Department of 
Chamber Music, who is director of these concerts, has announced the 
programme of the fourth concert, on Sunday evening, March 8, as 
follows: Tschaikowsky's Sextet for Strings, Opus 70 {Souvenir de 
Florence^, to be played by Jacob Brodsky and Lily Matison, Violins, 
Leon Frengut and Samuel Goldblum, Violas, and Adine Barozzi and 
Katherine Conant, Violoncelli; Schubert's Octet, Opus 166, for Wind 
Instruments and Strings, to be played by James Collis, Clarinet, William 
Santucci, Bassoon, Theodore Seder, Horn, Jacob Brodsky and Lily 



Matison, Violins, Leon Frengut, Viola, Adine Barozzi, Violoncello, 
and Jack Posell, Double Bass. 


'T^HE CURTIS Institute continues in its presentation of a course of 
-^ twenty-five concerts before schools, colleges, clubs and similar 
groups. The following three recitals have been the most recent to 
take place. 

January i6 — Point Pleasant Beach High School, Point Pleasant Beach, New- 
Jersey: CeliaGomberg, Ki^j/iw/j-/-, a student of Madame Lea Luboshutz; Albert Mahler, 
Tenor, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza; Paceli Diamond, Mezx^' Soprano, a student 
of Miss van Emden; and Joseph RubanofF, Accompanist, a student of Mr. Harry 

February 3 — The Contemporary Club and Trenton College Club, Trenton, New 
Jersey: Florence Frantz, Pianist, a student of Madame Isabelle Vengerova; Henriette 
Horle, Soprano, a student of Madame Marcella Sembrich; Philip Frank, Violinist, a 
student of Mr. Efrem Zimbalist; and Bernard Frank, Accompanist, a student of Mr. 
Harry Kaufman. 

February 4 — State Teachers' College, West Chester, Pennsylvania: Martha 
Halbwachs, Pianist, a student of Mr. Joseph Hofmann; Rose Bampton, Contralto, a 
student of Mr. Horatio Connell; Philip Frank, Violinist, a student of Mr. Efrem 
Zimbalist; Elizabeth Westmoreland and Bernard Frank, Accompanists. The pro- 
gramme included two first performances in America of songs by Marian Coryell, a 
student in Composition of Mr. Rosario Scalero. 

Other appearances in the near future will occur on February 19 at 
the University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware; on March 7 at the 
George School, George School, Pennsylvania; and on March 10 before 
the Wednesday Club of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 


T7URTHER concerts have been presented in the series of radio broad- 
-*- casts being given this season by the artist-students of The Curtis 
Institute of Music over thirty-one stations of the Columbia Broad- 
casting System on Friday afternoons from 4 to 4:45 o'clock, Eastern 
Standard Time. The Ninth Programme was heard on January 16. 
The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Mr. Emil Mlynarski, 
played Tschaikowsky's Romeo and Juliet and, with Philip Frank, 
Violinist, as soloist, the First, Fourth, and Fifth Movements from 
Lalo's Spanish Symphony, Opus 2.1. 


The Tenth Programme followed on January 13 . The Trio, Opus 
40, by Brahms, was played by Joseph Levine, Pianist, Henry White- 
head, Horn, and Iso Briselli, Violinist. Daniel Healy, Tenor, accom- 
panied by Elizabeth Westmoreland, sang Donaudy's Vaghissima 
Semhian'^a and Roger Quilter's The Maiden Blush, To Daisies, and 
Blow, Blotv, Thou Winter Wind. Last on this programme came De- 
bussy's String Quartet in G minor. Opus 10, played by the Swastika 

On January 30 an Eleventh Programme included songs and 
chamber music. Irene Singer, Soprano, sang the Old English Phillis 
has such charming graces, Abram Chasins's Dreams, and Arditi's Love in 
Springtime. She was accompanied at the Piano by Joseph RubanofF. 
Beethoven's Sonata in F major. Opus 2.4, followed, played by Celia 
Gomberg, Violinist, and Jeanne Behrend, Pianist. The concluding 
group was made up of Gounod's Eve72 bravest heart may swell, from 
Faust, Moussorgsky's Song of the Flea, and the Mexican Folk Song, Go 
Ask of the High Stars Gleaming, sung by Abrasha Robofsky, accom- 
panied by Joseph Rubanoff. 


/Continuing the recital schedule planned for this season by the 
^^ late Dr. Lynnwood Farnam, Carl Weinrich, a graduate student 
of the Institute's Department of Organ, has played the last two pairs 
in a series of four programmes of modern organ music at the Church 
of the Holy Communion, New York City. The composers represented 
were: January 18-19 — Charles Tournemire, Marcel Dupre, Bruce 
Simonds, Ernest Austin, and Louis Vierne; January 2.5-2.6 — Ernest 
Zechiel (an instructor in the Institute's Department of Composition), 
Sigfrid Karg-Elert, Charles Wood, Tournemire, and Dupre. On the 
Sundays and Mondays of April, Mr. Weinrich will give a series of 
four Bach programmes. 

Mr. Weinrich and Alexander McCurdy, Jr. were among the four 
pupils of the late Dr. Farnam who performed organ solos at the service 
in memory of Dr. Farnam which was held on the evening of January 



13, at St. Thomas's Church, New York City. Mr. McCurdy gave a 
recital of works by Reger, Delbruch, Schumann, Karg-Elert, Bach, 
Handel, Vierne, and Widor in the Covenant Presbyterian Church of 
Harrisburg on January 2.0. On February 12. he played a recital at 
Grace Lutheran Church in Stroudsburg. In his own church, the 
Second Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, Mr. McCurdy will give a 
series of recitals on the Saturdays of the month of March. 

Sylvan Levin played the piano parts of Bach's Bra?ide7iburg Concerto 
No. J with the Philadelphia Orchestra in its performances on Decem- 
ber 18, 2.0, and 2.1, in Philadelphia. 

Students of the Institute have presented four more concerts in 
the series of weekly broadcasts being made over WCAU on Tuesdays 
from 6:30 to 7 o'clock, under the sponsorship of the Philadelphia 
Memorial Park. Those who participated were: 

January xo: Abe Burg, Violin, PaceH Diamond, Mez^o Soprano, Richard Town- 
send, Flute, and Eugene Helmer, Accompanist. 

January 17: Cecille Geschichter, Pianist, Conrad Thibault, Baritone, Agnes Davis, 
Soprano, and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanist. 

February 3 : Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, Celia Gomberg, Violinist, Max 
AronofF, Viola Player, and Joseph RubanofF, Accompanist. 

February 10: Rose Bampton, Contralto, Judith Poska, Violinist, and Yvonne 
Krinsky, Pianist and Accompanist . 

Genia Wilkomirska, Dramatic Soprano, sang over WLIT during the 
Kendall Hour, on January 9. Florence Irons, Soprano, was the soloist 
during the Public Ledger Hour, over WHAT, on February 8. 

An unusual opportunity to assist in music education offered itself 
when eleven members of The Curtis Symphony Orchestra demon- 
strated their instruments and provided the musical illustrations during 
a lecture by Mr. Samuel Laciar, Music Critic of the Public Ledger, 
before the Junior Forum in the Penn Athletic Club Ball Room on the 
afternoon of January 17. 

Carol Deis, Soprano, winner of the First Award for women in the 
recent Atwater Kent National Contest and now a student of Mr. de 



Gogorza, was fellow soloist with Alfred Wallenstein, noted violon- 
cellist, in the Atwater Kent Hour on Sunday evening, January 2.5. 
. . . Benjamin de Loache, Baritone, assisted by Elizabeth Westmore- 
land at the Piano, was soloist in a musicale presented in Washington 
on January 15 by Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen. Other appearances by Mr. 
de Loache were in Raleigh, N. C. on January 2.-/, Camden, S. C. on 
January 2.8, and the University of South Carolina, in Columbia, on 
January 2.9. . . . Rose Bampton, Contralto, was a soloist with the 
Tioga Choral Society of Philadelphia, on February 5. She sang for 
the Chromatic Club of Buffalo, N. Y., on the afternoon of February 7. 

Sonia Hodge, Pianist, has been engaged as accompanist for Mari- 
anne Gonitch, well known soprano of The Philadelphia Grand Opera 
Company. On January 15 they appeared in a recital in Portland, 
Maine, while additional appearances will be made shortly in Chicago, 
on February 16, and in St. Louis, on February 2.1. 

The Swastika Quartet assisted Angela Morgan in her recital in 
the Foyer of the Academy of Music on Wednesday evening, February 

Faculty Activities 


N THE evening of Monday, January 19, the Institute heard 
the Seventh Faculty Recital of the season, in Casimir Hall, 
when Mr. Felix Salmond, Violoncellist, presented a pro- 
gramme assisted by Mr. Harry Kaufman at the Piano. Mr. 
Salmond's first work, the Adagio from Johann Sebastian Bach's Organ 
Toccata in C major, was arranged for him by the late Dr. Lynnwood 
Farnam. Other works in the first group were Sicilienne by Paradis- 
Dushkin, Air Tendre by Mondonville-Kaufman, and a Minuet and 
Gavotte and Gigue by Veracini-Salmon. Mr. Kaufman collaborated 
with Mr. Salmond in performances of Beethoven's Sonata No. j, in D 
major. Opus 102., No. 2. and Brahms's Sonata No. i, in E minor. Opus 



38. A final group included Gabriel Faure's Elegie, Maurice Ravel's 
Piece en jortne de Habanera, Ernest Bloch's Prayer — '^ From Jeicish Life", 
and Abram Chasins's Nocturne and Humoresque Hebraique (both dedi- 
cated to Mr. Salmond). In the last two works, the Composer was at 
the Piano. 

The next Faculty Recital will be that presented on Monday eve- 
ning, March 2., by Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist. 


MR. Josef Hofmann, Pianist, gave a recital in Constitution Hall, 
in Washington, D. C, on January 17. On January 2.3, 2.4, and 
2.7, he appeared as soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 
under Frederick Stock. This was followed by a recital in Minneapo- 
lis, Minnesota, on January 2.8. On February 15 Mr. Hofmann appears 
in recital in Chicago, Illinois. Later appearances this month will be 
in Daytona Beach, Florida, on February 18, and in Miami, Florida, 
on February 2.0. Mr. Hofmann 's second New York recital for this 
season will take place in Carnegie Hall on March 14. 

Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist, has recently appeared in recitals 
in New York City, Boston, and Little Rock, Arkansas, among others. 

Mr. Mieczyslaw Miinz, Pianist, will be soloist with the Philadel- 
phia Orchestra, under Ossip Gabrilowitsch, in the pair of concerts 
to be given on February 10 and ii in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Carlos Salzedo, Harpist, was soloist at the Beethoven Associa- 
tion concert of January 19 in Town Hall, New York. With George 
Barrere he played the Mozart Concerto for Flute and Harp, with a 
chamber orchestra conducted by Albert Stoessel. Among other works 
in which Mr. Salzedo participated, one of especial interest was 
Claude Debussy's Sonata for Flute, Viola, and Harp. On January 2.2., 
Miss Lucile Lawrence and Mr. Salzedo gave a recital of music for two 
harps at the Lecture Musicale series of the Schola Cantorum of New 
York City. 


The Library 


IHE INSTALLATION of an exhibition case in one of the down- 
stairs rooms of The Library now makes it possible for the 
exhibition of numerous rare books, scores, manuscripts 
pictures, and so forth which are owned by The Curtis In- 
stitute of Music or loaned to it. During the past month a large num- 
ber of students have expressed great interest in the present exhibition, 
which includes a picture of Chopin, made by his intimate friend 
Kwiatkowski (loaned by Mrs. Bok), a photographed copy of the 
manuscript of the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven (a gift from Mr. 
Hofmann), and a collection (loaned by Mr. Edwin Bachmann) con- 
sisting of photographs, letters, and manuscripts of famous musicians 
including Liszt, Verdi, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Beethoven, Rubin- 
stein, Berlioz, Spohr, Haydn, Paganini, and Gounod. 


ONE of the most popular departments of the Institute is the Phono- 
graph Room, where students are always to be found engrossed 
in listening to music recorded for the phonograph. Here one may not 
only have the music repeated as often as one wishes, but also follow 
it by the aid of the scores which are kept at hand for this purpose. 
A large quantity of new and interesting recordings have been added 
to the collection during the period from September to February. 
Among these is to be found the Brahms Sonata in D minor for Violin 
and Piano, played by Mr. Efrem Zimbalist and Mr. Harry Kaufman. 
The Library has also acquired recordings by Mr. Felix Salmond and 
Mr. Kaufman of Goltermann's Andante and Pergolesi's Tre Giorni. 
Other recordings by Mr. Salmond are the Allegro of Sammartini's 
Sonata, Beethoven's Sevett Variations on a Theme by M.o'^art, and Rach- 
maninov's At Night. 

Students of Opera will be interested to discover new complete 
opera recordings. Donizetti's Eucia di Eammermoor, with famous 
artists and the La Scala Opera Chorus and Orchestra, conducted by 
Malejoli, is an excellent recording and has already been much used. 



Beecham and a Symphony Orchestra in London have made an inter- 
esting recording of Gounod's Faust, sung in English. Other Italian 
opera recordings include Mascagni's Cavalleria Kusticana, with famous 
artists and the La Scala Opera Chorus and Orchestra, Malejoli con- 
ducting; Puccini's Tosca and Leoncavallo's Pagliacci, with famous 
artists and the La Scala Opera Chorus and Orchestra, Sabajno con- 
ducting; and Verdi's Aida, recorded by members of La Scala, Milan, 
with Dusolina Giannini, conducted by Malejoli. 

There has been a considerable demand for Lieder, which has been 
met in part by recordings made by Gerhardt of songs by Brahms and 
Reger and by Kipnis of songs by Schubert. There are also recordings 
by Frieda Hempel of Mozart and Schumann songs. Of interest 
among old recordings are one by John McCormack of Mozart's // 
Mio Tesoro, one by Melba of Voi Che Sapefe, and a third by Patti of 
Lotti's Pur Discesti. Other old recordings are being acquired at the 
request of the several voice teachers of the Institute. 

Sym-phony No. i and Symphony No. 2, of Sibelius, have been much 
in demand. The former, in E minor, reveals the composer's love of 
Nature and his interest in the national life of Finland; the latter, in 
D major, is of equal interest, though with a difference in detail 
■ — simple in its utterance, but most fascinating. These recordings 
were made under the supervision — and with the financial support — 
of the Finnish Government. Assurance has been given that the later 
Sibelius Symphonies are in preparation now, under the same auspices. 

Other recordings of special interest are those of two works by 
Delius, Brigg Fair and Summer Night on the River, both conducted by 
Beecham. An exceptionally great work is the Brahms' Alto Rhapsody, 
sung by Sigrid Onegin, with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra and the 
Berlin Doctors' Choir, conducted by Dr. Singer. Additional works 
include excerpts from Chabrier's Le Roi Malgre Lui, an early recording 
from Gounod's Faust by Eames-Plangon-Dalmores, numerous excerpts 
from Humperdinck's Hansel und Gretel and Moussorgsky's Boris God- 
ounov, songs by Braga, Brahms, Giordano, Bizet, Rimsky-Korsakoff, 
Massenet, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann, Saint-Saens, and Wagner, 
Schubert's Octet in F major. Opus 166, Tschaikowsky's Concerto in D 
major, Opus 35, for Violin and Orchestra, and Brahms's Symphony 
No. 2 in D major. 


IS/lusk Calendar 

February 15-28 

15 — London String Quartet, Ball Room of the BeJIevue-Stratford Hotel, afternoon. 

16 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Ossip Gabrilowitsch conducting, evening. 

17 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

10 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Mieczyslaw Miinz, Pianist, afternoon. 

10 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

2.1 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Miinz, evening. 

ix — Maria Jeritza, Soprano, Penn Athletic Club Ball Room, evening. 

X4 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

z6 — Madama Butterfly, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 

2.J — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Myra Hess, Pianist, afternoon. 

2.J — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

2.8 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Hess, evening. 

March 1-15 

2. — Mr. Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist, Casimir Hall, evening. 

2. — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Hess, evening. 

3 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

4 — Students of Mr. Josef Hofmann, Madame LuboshutX., and Madame Vengerova in first 

recital of Beethoven Sonatas, Casimir Hall, evening. 
5 — Faust, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 

6 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Beatrice Griffin, Violinist, afternoon. 
6 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 
7 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, Griffin, evening. 
8 — Recital of Chamber Music, Pennsylvania Museum at Pairmount, evening. 
8 — Madeleine Grey, Diseuse, and Nathan Milstein, Violinist, Penn Athletic Club 

Ball Room, evening, 
c) — New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, Arturo Toscanini conducting, 

Academy of Music, evening. 
10 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 
10 — Students of Mr. Josef Hofmann, Madame Luboshut%_, and Madame Vengerova in second 

recital of Beethoven Sonatas, Casimir Hall, evening. 
II — The Musical Art Quartette, Casimir Hall, evening. 
IX — L'Heure Espagnole and Cavalleria Rusticana, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, 

13 — Philadelphia Orchestra in Bach's St. Matthew Pass/on, Gabrilowitsch conducting. 

Metropolitan Opera House, afternoon. 
13 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 
14 — Philadelphia Orchestra, St. Mattheiv Passion, evening. 
15 — Sivastika Quartet, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, afternoon. 




The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 




Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 6 March, 193 1 




Editorial Comment 153 

A Consideration of Current Problems of the Opera 

Wilhelm von Wyjnetal, Jr. 155 

On Determining the Art of Working Carlos Sal%edo 161 

Concert by The Musical Art Quartet 165 

Student Activities : 

Casimir Hall Concerts 165 

Opera 166 

The Curtis Symphony Orchestra 167 

Chamber Music 170 

Concert Course Recitals 171 

Radio Broadcasts 171 

Other Events 172. 

Faculty Activities 173 

Glimpses of the Institute: 

X. The Studio of Mr. Josef Hofmann 175 

Music Calendar 176 


Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr., Instructor in Operatic Acting and Stage 
Deportment 154 

Carlos Salzedo, Head of the Department of Harp 160 

Artist Students Who Have Appeared with The Curtis Symphony 
Orchestra 168-169 

The Studio of Mr. Josef Hofmann 174 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtones 
Copyright 1931 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 

Editorial Comment 


N THE EARLY days of the Institute, six or seven years ago, 
when the student orchestra was scarcely complete in the 
ranks of such instruments as the woodwinds and brass, 
there was no attempt at all to appear in a public concert. 
The latter was first accomplished under Mr. Stokowski's leadership, 
during the Institute's second season, and then only after weeks of 
careful preparation and repeated rehearsals of one programme. By 
degrees the orchestra has grown more complete, more rounded, more 
experienced, until at last it is qualified to be entitled The Curtis 
Symphony Orchestra. Before long it was dissatisfied with only the 
single annual concert in Philadelphia and it ventured upon brief trips 
afield — Bryn Mawr, then New York, then Boston. This season the 
total of concerts has reached a record one of four, including appearances 
in Baltimore and Washington in addition to those in Bryn Mawr and 

In the same way the number of soloists has been augmented. 
Hitherto there have not been more than three soloists with the 
orchestra and these have uniformly performed the same works when 
appearing in more than one concert. During the present season, 
however, there have been a total of six soloists — four singers, one 
violinist, and one pianist — -who have appeared with the orchestra in 
four programmes no two of which have been entirely alike. In 
addition, a long considered plan has been made a reality— that of 
providing the opportunity of public appearances with the orchestra 
to students in Conducting at the Institute. Thus two students, Louis 
Vyner and Sylvan Levin, have appeared once each, conducting the 
orchestra in concert performances in Baltimore and Bryn Mawr. 
It is to be hoped that such opportunities for qualified students will 
become increasingly frequent in future seasons. Thanks to its aug- 
mented programme of activities, The Curtis Symphony Orchestra is 
thus serving an exceptionally valuable role in providing the means of 
gaining experience to those orchestral instrumentalists, soloists, and 
youthful conductors who are destined for professional careers. 

ff 153 1 


Camera Fortran by Albert Petersen 

WILHELM VON WYMETAL, JR., Stage Director of the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Instructor in 
Operatic Acting and Stage Deportment in the Curtis Institute Departmerit of Opera 

I 154 1 




A Consideration of Current Problems of 

the Opera 


HE DISCUSSION of Opera as a form and type, already a latent 
problem of musical life for three centuries, since Gluck's 
efforts at reform, has never been more violent in any pre- 
vious period than it is today. Likewise, the fundamental 
differences in opinion are greater now than in any other era; never 
before have people been so pessimistic and so optimistic regarding the 
continued existence of opera, and never before have the works of 
contemporary composers been commented upon amid so much publicity 
and journalistic reclame. The heart of the whole burning discussion 
of opera may be traced, after all, to the question of the vitality of 
opera and the problem of opera reforms that suit our own period. 

If we take as the starting point of our consideration the situation of 
opera today, our attention is caught by two seemingly contradictorv 
circumstances. On the one hand, there is persistently evident, in a 
period in which all laws of form are thrown aside in the pretended 
advancement of art, the effort to revive the old masters in their 
neglected works. The oldest Verdi is sought out, there is a return to 
the longest-forgotten Donizetti, and Rossini, Gluck, Handel, and 
Haydn are unearthed : it seems that everyone would like to witness a 
splendid renaissance of the whole baroque period of music. But is 
this merely a matter of fashion or must the dead be reawakened 
because of the failure of the living? And now, on the other hand, 
it appears increasingly evident that the composers of today, who 
condemn everything of yesterday as old-fashioned and already useless, 
and who wish to have the time-conditioned theater of the present 
recognized as the sole legitimate expression of our period, are never- 

H 155 } 


theless — les extrhnes se touchent — slowly beginning to borrow their 
material, as we shall see later, from the past! 

Forthwith the most urgent question is the following : is our present 
era really so poor in subject matter which would stir our emotions, 
understanding, and heart, or does every attempt miscarry to create 
out of our present external world the material and stimuli which can 
stir the imaginations of a society which, through a boundless realiza- 
tion of civilization's technical development, has become enervated and 
withholds itself from any creation which would oblige it once more to 
live and think with it, to yield to it one's sympathies? But in speak- 
ing of a contemporary theater and the creation of works appropriate 
to our period, the matter of the present time, in so far as we are con- 
cerned with the question of its productiveness of the material for 
such creations, is really only of secondary importance to opera; we 
might simply say here, beforehand, that everything that is absolutely 
conditioned by its epoch — especially in the realms of art — is in con- 
sequence only a thing of fashion, and that the artist who is creating 
expressly for a milieu actual only for the time being will be forgotten 
just as swiftly as will this period itself. The epoch or period can 
serve only to provide the framework for the creation of the great work 
of art — it cannot furnish the artistic impulse as well. 

The most certain measure of the vitality of any form of art is the 
degree of the intensity of the work produced. This is just as true in 
the world of art as it is in the world of practical affairs; in one, as in 
the other, continued stagnation leads to sure death. Proceeding to 
the question of the vitality of opera in our time, we therefore are 
obliged, first of all, to compare the degree of the present era's produc- 
tivity of operas with that of earlier periods. (Since only works of 
long enduring success can be judged as a standard of the permanence 
of an art-form, we will take into consideration here only those works 
which, still living today, permanently hold their places in the re- 
pertoires of our opera-houses.) One naturally cannot decide in 
advance which of the most recently written operas will continue to 
live. However, an examination of the youngest period of opera, that 
from 1900 to 192.5, helps us sooner to a conclusion regarding the 
productiveness of these years in operas of long-enduring success. 

H 156 1 


The result, at first, does not seem very encouraging: of all the com- 
posers who succeeded in having their works produced during this 
period, it is only Puccini, Debussy, Strauss, d' Albert, Pfitzner, and 
perhaps also Wolf-Ferrari and Janacek whom we find permanently 
established in the repertoires. Going back another twenty-five 
years, we find as composers of works of enduring success — apart from 
Verdi and Wagner — only Saint-Saens, Bizet, Mussorgsky, Tschai- 
kowsky, Massenet, Humperdinck, Kienzl, Leoncavallo, Mascagni, 
and, again, Puccini. It is, then, a matter of fact that the productive- 
ness of opera during the most recent past — as well as in the earlier 
periods, also — was comparatively poor, in yielding works of longer 
enduring artistic success. Also it is a further fact that today much 
less will be composed for the opera stage than in former times. But 
production has retrogressed quantitatively not only in opera but in all 
classes of musical expression, and this because the economic conditions 
and sociological structure of our epoch work directly against the 
possibility of much artistic creation. 

Nevertheless, a glance still farther back into the past of opera 
shows that the situation of present day opera is by no means abnormal. 
In spite of the far greater number of works written in earlier times 
(Donizetti — 66 operas; Handel — 40; Verdi — 2.7; and so on), the gain in 
artistic works of enduring success w^as at no time great. From the 
fruitful period of opera in the eighteenth century, only the works of 
Gluck and Mozart have succeeded in remaining in opera repertory 
up to our own time. And, in addition, the more important works for 
opera of the nineteenth century are not so very numerous: actually 
only the works of Beethoven, Auber, Weber, Meyerbeer, Rossini, 
Donizetti, Lortzing, Verdi, Wagner, Gounod, Nicolai, and Smetana 
are still established today in the opera repertoires. It therefore can 
be said definitively that the balance of productivity of more recent 
times, when compared with that of earlier periods, is not unfavorable 
and, in any case, does not indicate any striking stagnation; nor does 
the deficiency in number of artistic works of enduring success during 
all the periods of opera prove any argument against the vitality of 
opera itself. 

Before entering into the problem of suitable reforms of opera 

[157 1 


today, we must consider the question of the possibility of reforming 
opera in general. Does opera still possess sufficient innate vigor 
for it to be able to absorb new elements — is it capable of still being 
transformed? This question can tranquilly be answered in the 
affirmative, especially with regard to opera's most recent past, its 
development on the path from the realism of the post-Wagnerian 
period, via Strauss, to the impressionism of Debussy, and from the 
latter, by way of the modern "jazz-opera" of Krenek, to the very 
latest "cinema-opera" of Antheil. In this regard, opera has demon- 
strated the greatest degree of adaptability, beyond a doubt, and so we 
stand today once again in a new period of transition, of search after 
new form and new style. If at this point we can scarcely count upon 
the creation of enduring artistic values, then the present period never- 
theless serves to indicate that, in spite of the commonplaces so dearly 
loved today (such phrases as "cultural crisis," "art crisis," "general 
spiritual decline," and the like), it offers, like every other period, 
sufficient artistic possibilities for opera's development and, at the 
same time, for its vitality. 

The problem of a general reform of stage production suitable to 
our period culminates in the demand for the creation of a "modern 
theater" — in our particular case, a "modern opera." Out of the 
whole widespread torrent of current art-philosophical discussion, let 
us, for the sake of the brevity of this article, ascribe ad hoc a fixed and 
limited meaning to this term of multifarious significations. The 
demand for a theater of the present time (what we have called a 
"modern theater") is an idea which was already well known in 
earlier times, and, as far as the opera is concerned, does not need to be 
taken entirely too seriously. Almost every period of opera has found, 
in the matter of style and form, actually the more or less marked 
expression of its time. And certainly, this holds true not only in the 
artistic shaping of the work itself but also in the manner of its being 
staged. An instance of the one may be found in the opera of the 
baroque, hiding behind the veil of allegory its allusions to the real 
world; or again in such a work as the Figaro of Beaumarchais and 
Mozart, which serves indirectly as a reflection of the social conditions 
shortly before the French Revolution. By way of illustrating the 

I 158 I 


other manifestation, let us briefly cite the youngest and, thus far, most 
radical experiment of the kind: the production of Wagner's King of 
the Nibelungs as an arbitrarily rendered tragedy of class conflict, in 
the representations staged by the Leningrad Opera, where they do not 
shrink from "Bolshevizing" even Mozart's innocent pastoral-play, 
Bastien and Bastienne . 

Opera that is bound to a specific period in its material or manner of 
production, as in the above examples, is therefore, as regards its 
enduring value outside of any period of time and its susceptibility to 
transformation, an absurdity It is just the contrary: operas of 
marked actuality, such as Krenek's Jonny Spiel f Auf, Hindemith's 
Neues vom Tage, and Antheil's Transaflanfic, suffer altogether because 
of the difference in time between the events of the stage and reality, 
which, in opera far more than with the drama of the theater, requires a 
very minimm of such contrast in order to bring out the inner meaning 
of the opera, which in its form inclines more towards the unreal, the 
fantastic. (Under the heading of this endeavor might also be assigned 
Strawinsky's excursion into neo-classicism, Oedipus Rex, and surely 
Krenek's attempt at the revival of antiquity — with the aid of jazz- 
injections, to be sure! — in his Leben des Orest.^ 

In this sense, Alban Berg's opera, Wozx.^ck, represents a far more 
valuable contribution, indeed, to opera of a period, since here the 
subject matter, detached from all questions of the present time, 
appears assured of actuality even beyond our own period. Let it be 
said here, because of the current interest in it, that the combination of 
scenic expression and musical abstraction in Berg's opera leads away 
from the pure type of opera back again to that of music-drama, and 
that the composer, in the fine delineation of impressions felt purely 
naturalistically, as well as in the preference shown for musical decla- 
mation (quite different, naturally, in the technique of composition), 
strives after the same goal as did Debussy: the synthesis of drama and 
opera. Out of the ever closer blending of these two types of art, 
there might, it is to be hoped, grow up still a newer style, more 
suited to our present period. 

I 159 1 


CARLOS SALZEDO, Head of the Department of Harp 

I 160 1 

On Determining the Art of Working 


HE STATEMENT has oftcn been made that the principal point to 
be developed in the music student's mind is his own share 
of responsibility in his work. The good sense of such 
advice is obvious, but in attempting to follow it the student 
finds that the chief problem lies in knowing how to work. Most 
students waste years before they solve this complex problem. To 
know how to work is as difficult as to know how to live, and as rarely 
discovered. A student may be helped to solve this problem through 
competent guidance, but in the end the result rests chiefly with the 
student himself. The most skillful teacher can only explain and 
analyze; he cannot actually ivork for the student. 

There are three principal phases in the development of an 
instrumentalist : 

I. Acquiring technique, including the diff^erent kinds of touch, 
tone-color, and so forth. 

-L. Learning how to work. 

3. Mastering interpretation, that is, learning how^ to assimilate 
and to render the inner idea of a musical work. 

The first phase involves mechanical problems only, which can be 
overcome by most students. The second phase makes an appeal to 
the equilibrium of the individual; it is a matter of adjustment and 
readjustment. The third phase depends on the degree of receptivity, 
the suppleness, and the artistic tendencies of the instrumentalist. In 
this article I wish to deal expressly with the second phase. 

The first step toward learning how to work is to rid oneself of all 
that is unessential; in other words, to put oneself in a frame of mind 
capable of instantaneous discernment before the many problems 
encountered while working. 

In general, students go to work unprepared; the first part of their 
period of work is generally wasted. For most of them, to work may 
be a bore. Yet what could be more interesting than work which 

I 161 ! 


offers such rich opportunities for scientific experiment and which re- 
sults in valuable experience? But few students realize the benefit from 
practice well done, which, if the time is spent intelligently, has a double 
result: the mastering of a musical work and the affirmation of one's 
own nature. 

Many students are worn out after a short period of work. This is 
the result of unconcentrated practice. Work well done acts on the 
student as a reconstructive force. 

Students are often apt to confuse laziness with fatigue. This is 
particularly true of gifted people. 

Inexperienced students stop working as scon as they feel tired. 
If the fatigue is cerebral they ought to stop so as to start anew with a 
fresh viewpoint. If the fatigue is physical, that is, muscular, they 
ought to keep on for a short while longer. This will gradually 
develop the power of the muscles. 

The method of preparing a musical work is simple and logical: 
it consists of intelligent repetition of each passage and section of the 
composition. The composition, at first, should be read and played 
in its entirety so that the student may have a general idea of its 
contents; but as soon as he has become familiar with the composition 
he should spend time on the details until each detail is firmly mastered 
and assimilated. This does not concern technical details only. Pas- 
sages of a dynamic and emotional nature must be affirmed by means of 
the same procedure. Few, even among professionals, devote a 
sufficient amount of time and thought to passages other than merely 
technical ones. Yet a dynamic effect will not be well rendered at the 
performance if it has not been affirmed through intelligent repetition 
in practice. The same holds true for any passage requiring great 
finesse or emotional power. 

The repeating principle appears to the inexperienced student to be 
drudgery, a waste of time. The necessity of spending ten or fifteen 
minutes on a passage, or on a bar or half a bar, or even on a simple 
chord, is beyond his comprehension. For those students who do not 
understand, I will compare this repeating principle to the construction 
of a building. Both the musical composition and the building must 
be put up in as indestructible a manner as possible. To that end each 

1162 1 


part must be firmly built; each detail solidly affirmed. Buildings 
need frequent repairs; so does the instrumentalist's repertoire. But 
these should be only local repairs, and the ensemble as well as the 
details must be assembled, from the start, in such a way as to resist the 
storms to which the career of the instrumentalist — as well as the 
building — is subject. 

Even as an abandoned building may again become serviceable if 
it has a good foundation, a composition put aside for a while, even 
for years, can be revived within a few days' notice — even a few 
hours — if it has been solidly assembled. 

Intelligent repeating does not only assure the assimilation of a 
musical work; it also will solve the problem of memorizing. To play 
or recite something from memory is to remember it; remembrance is 
but a matter of assimilation, and the logical way of assimilating 
something is to repeat it until it becomes a part of our organism. 

Th^re is no definite rule as to how often a passage ought to be 
repeated. This is to be determined according to the particular degree 
of aptitude of each student. But there are two distinct phases in the 
repeating system: the Prelude and the Affirmation. By "prelude" I 
mean correct reading of a passage and the repetition of the same for 
at least five or six times; by "affirmation", the assimilation of the 
same passages. 

Most students call "working" what is but the "prelude". As 
soon as they have repeated a passage a few times they run on to the 
next, regardless of how they possess the preceding one. This has no 
more solidity than a castle built on sand. 

Sometimes, after a period of good practice, the student will begin 
the next period with uncertainty and consequently might be inclined 
to think that the preceding period was fruitless. There is nothing 
abnormal in that, and the student should not be discouraged. It is a 
mere question of readjustment, and a few minutes of concentrated 
work will suffice for him to catch up and to be again on a level with his 
selj of the preceding period of work. 

The choice of fingering is very important. It should be decided 
upon during the prelude period and not be changed during the period 
of affirmation, unless the student finds out the impracticability of his 
first choice. To use indifferently one finger or another is a loss of time. 

I 163 1 


During the period of affirmation, the student should "ventilate" 
his work, that is, take slight breathing pauses in between each 
repetition. If consciously done this will act as a reconstructive factor 
and will prevent the student from becoming tired and stuffy. 

It is imperative that the student should always bear musical values 
in mind while studying, or else he will not be able to grasp the inner 
idea of the composition. It is no less imperative that he should 
always practice with the musical text before him, no matter how well 
he may believe he knows the composition. Bad habits may result 
from practicing from memory and these are very difficult to get rid of. 

Concerning instruments where, both hands play an independent 
role — organ, harp, piano — there is no definite rule as to working hands 
separately or together. This depends on the peculiarity of the 
passages. In some instances practicing each hand separately simplifies 
the work; in others it complicates it. Often a passage practiced with 
hands separate will be at first difficult to play with hands together, 
but the student should not become discouraged; this is nothing more 
than a matter of readjustment of the hands once each hand has been 
individually adjusted. 

There are cases of physical stubbornness which may puzzle stu- 
dents. A finger will obstinately refuse to go to the right key or 
string. This often comes from too little time spent during what has 
been termed, above, the prelude period. 

Two categories of musicians evolve from those who undertake the 
study of music: professional and amateur. The latter is often more 
artistically disposed than the former; but that which differentiates 
these two categories is less a question of gift than of intelligent guid- 
ance and individual perseverence. During his years of study the 
"will-be-amateur" rarely goes beyond the prelude period. He flirts 
with music. He stops where the "will-be-professional" starts, and 
his lack of self-affirmation relegates him to the role of passive musi- 
cian. It is true that amateurs constitute the best part of our musical 
audiences, but one cannot sufficiently deplore the loss of so much 
talent because of lack of perseverence. Once imbued with this con- 
ception of work, how much good might the student accomplish for 
the cause of music ! 

II 164 1 

Concert by The Musical Art Quartet 

NusuAL among Casimir Hall events was the concert given 
recently on the evening of Wednesday, March ii, by The 
Musical Art Quartet of New York City. The personnel of 
this well-known organization consists of Mr. Sascha 
Jacobsen, First Viol hi, Mr. Paul Bernard, Second Violin, Mr. Louis 
Kaufman, Viola, and Madame Marie Roemaet-RosanofF, Violoncello. 
The Musical Art Quartet opened its programme with Haydn's Quartet 
in C inajor. Opus 54, No. 2. and continued with Schubert's Quartet in D 
minor. Opus posthumous. In the last work to be played, Ernest 
Chausson's C<?;?c£'r/- in D major, for Piano, Violin and String Quartet, 
Mr. Harry Kaufman, Head of the Institute's Department of Ac- 
companying, was collaborating artist at the Piano, with Mr. Sascha 
Jacobsen as Solo Violin. Mr. Paul Bernard played First Violin, while 
Mr. H. Neidell assisted as Second Violin. 

Student Activities 


IHE FIFTH and Sixth Students' Concerts for the current season 
have served to introduce the first two programmes in the 
series of three recitals announced last month of Ludwig van 
Beethoven's Ten Sonatas for Violin and Piano. This series 
is being presented by students of Mr. Hofmann, Madame Luboshutz, 
and Madame Vengerova. The first programme, given on Wednesday 
evening, March 4, included the Sonata in G major. Opus 30, No. 3, 
played by Henry Siegl, Violinist, and Yvonne Krinsky, Pianist, a 
student of Madame Vengerova; the Sonata in A major. Opus 12., No. 
1, played by James Bloom, Violinist, and William Harms, Pianist, a 
student of Mr. Hofmann; and the Sonata in C minor. Opus 30, No. i, 
played by Celia Gomberg, Violinist, and Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, 
graduate student of Mr. Hofmann. 

The second programme followed on Tuesday evening, March 10, 
when four additional works were heard : the Sonata in A major. Opus 30, 
No. I, played by James Bloom, Violinist, and Martha Halbwachs, 
Pianist, a student of Mr. Hofmann; the Sonata in E flat major. Opus ii, 

I 165 I 


No. 3, played by Ethel Stark, Violinist, and Florence Frantz, Pianist, 
a student of Madame Vengerova; the Sonata in A minor. Opus 2.3, played 
by Henry Siegl, Violinist, and Martha Halbwachs, Pianist; and the 
Sonata in D major. Opus 12., No. i, played by Judith Poska, Violinist, 
and Joseph Levine, Pianist, a student of Mr. Hofmann. 

The third and concluding programme will be presented on Tuesday 
evening, March 17. An interesting and helpful feature of the printed 
programmes for these concerts is the inclusion of Programme Notes 
written by Boris Goldowsky, author of an article on these sonatas in 
the February Overtones, and a student of Conducting at the Institute. 

Forthcoming Students' Concerts will be those given on March 18 
by students of Mr. Zimbalist, on March I'y by students of Mr. Salzedo, 
on March 30 by students of Mr. Meiff, on April i by students of Mr. 
Salzedo in ensemble, on April 13 by students of Mr. Bachmann, on 
April 14 by students of Mr. Bailly, and on April 15 by students of Mr. 


WITH the second half of the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company's 
season well under way, the Twelfth Performance was that of 
Puccini's Madama Butterfly, given on Thursday evening, February x6. 
The leading roles were sung by Hitzi Koyke, Berta Levina, Ralph 
Errolle, Chief Caupolican, and Ivan Steschenko, while artist-students 
of The Curtis Institute appeared in supplementary roles, as follows : 

Kate Pinkerton Helen Jepson, Sof ratio 

Goro Albert Mahler, Tenor 

Prince Yamadori Benjamin De Loache, Baritone 

Imperial Cotmnissioner Benjamin Grobani, Baritone 

Official Registrar Walter Vassar, Baritone 

Mr. Emil Mlynarski conducted, and, as usual, Mr. Wilhelm von 
Wymetal, Jr. was Stage Director. 

On Thursday evening, March 5, Gounod's Faust \N2is presented. In 
this performance, which marked the American debut of Charlotte 
Boerner, Soprano of the Staatsoper, Berlin, several voice students of 
the Institute again participated: 

Wagner Benjamin Grobani, Baritone 

Siebel Charlotte Symons, Soprano 

Marthe Paceli Diamond, MexXP Soprano 

Mr. Mlynarski, who was originally announced as Conductor, was 

E 166 1 


unfortunately prevented from appearing because of illness. Of 
especial interest to the Institute was the fact that his substitute proved 
to be Sylvan Levin, student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting and 
Assistant Conductor of The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company. 
This marks Mr. Levin's second appearance for this season as a conduc- 
tor of opera . 

An interesting and w^idely contrasted "double bill" w^as that of the 
evening of March 12., when both Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole and Mas- 
cagni's Cavalier ia Kusticana were performed. Mr. Eugene Goossens 
was Conductor. Curtis Institute students were heard in both operas: 
in the first work Don Inigo Goimz. was sung by Abrasha Robofsky, 
Baritone, and Torpiemada by Albert Mahler, Tenor; in the second work 
Mama Lucia was sung by Rose Bampton, Contralto, and Lola by Genia 
Wilkomirska, Dramatic Soprano. 

Probably the most interesting event of the opera season will be 
the forthcoming performance on Thursday evening, March 19, when 
Wo'::Xeck, Alban Berg's modern opera, will have its American premiere 
under the baton of Leopold Stokowski. Four artist-students of the 
Institute will sing roles in this work. 


CONTINUING in the wake of its first three very successful appear- 
ances — in Philadelphia before the Philadelphia Forum, in Balti- 
more, and in Washington — The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, with 
Emil Mlynarski conducting, presented its final concert of the season on 
Monday evening, February 2.3, in Goodhart Hall at Bryn Mawr 
College. Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 2, in D major, which opened 
the programme, was followed by the First Movement QAllegro molto 
appassionato^ of Felix Mendelssohn's Concerto in E minor for Violin and 
Orchestra, in which the soloist was Carmela Ippolito, a student of Mr. 
Efrem Zimbalist. The conducting of the next work, Tschaikowsky's 
Overture-Fantasy — Romeo and Juliet, was entrusted to Louis Vyner, 
a student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting. The remaining composi- 
tions were selections by Richard Wagner: the Aria — du mein holder 
Abends tern from Tannhauser, for Baritone and Orchestra, sung by 
Conrad Thibault, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza; the Aria — 
Einsam in Tr'uben Tagen from Lohengrin, for Soprano and Orchestra, 

I 167 1 

Tenor Soloist in Philadelphia Forum Concert 


Piano Soloist in Philadelphia Forum and 

Baltimore Concerts 

Soprano Soloist in Baltimore Concert 


Assisting Conductor in Baltimore Concert 


Violin Soloist in Washington and Bryn Mawr 



Baritone Soloist in Washington and Bryn Mawr 


Assisting Condtcctor in Bryn Mawr Concerts 


Soprano Soloist in Bryn Mawr Concert 

Camera Portraits by Albert Petersen 



sung by Mildred Cable, a student of Madame Marcella Sembrich; and, 
in conclusion, the Overture to R/>;;^/. 


ONCE AGAIN a large audience was present in the Pennsylvania 
Museum of Art at Fairmount to hear the Fourth Chamber Music 
concert presented this season by artist-students of The Curtis Institute, 
on Sunday evening, March 8. The programme included two major 
works for chamber ensembles and an important composition for voice. 
First was heard Tschaikowsky's Sextet for Strings, Opus 70 (^Souvenir 
de Florence), which was performed by Jacob Brodsky and Lily Matison, 
Violins, Leon Frengut and Samuel Goldblum, Violas, and Adine 
Barozzi and Katherine Conant, Violoncelli. Following this Conrad 
Thibault, Baritone, assisted at the Piano by Joseph Rubanoff, sang 
Johannes Brahms's Vier Ernste Gesdnge, Opus 12.1, for Male Voice. 
The last work performed was Schubert's Octet in F major, Opus 166, for 
Wind Instruments and Strings, played by James Collis, Clarinet, 
William Santucci, Bassoon, Theodore Seder, Horn, Paul Gershman and 
Lily Matison, Violins, Leon Frengut, Viola, Adine Barozzi, Violon- 
cello, and Jack Posell, Double Bass. This concert, like the others in 
the series, was under the artistic direction of Dr. Louis Bailly, Head 
of the Department of Chamber Music of the Institute. A Fifth Cham- 
ber Music concert will be given on April 19. 

The Philadelphia Chamber Music Association, which this year 
has already heard the Lener and London String Quartets at several of 
its meetings, has invited the Swastika Quartet to appear at its last 
tw^o meetings, to take place on March 15 and April 12.. Last season, 
the Swastika Quartet played very successfully in one of the Chamber 
Music Associations's concerts. 

The Casimir Quartet performed at the Friends' Central School in 
Overbrook on the afternoon of February 2.G. On March 12., in the 
afternoon, the quartet will give a short programme for the Phila- 
delphia Art Alliance. 

I 170]} 



THIS SERIES of concerts presented before schools, colleges, clubs, and 
similar groups by artist-students of The Curtis Institute is achiev- 
ing a success even greater than that of last year. The following three 
recitals have been those given most recently. 

February 19 — The University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware: Martha Halb- 
wachs, Pianist, a student of Mr. Josef Hofmann; Irene Singer, Soprano, a student of 
Miss Harriet van Emden; Jacob Brodsky, Violinist, a student of Mr. Efrem Zimbalist; 
and Joseph RubanofF, Accompanist, a student of Mr. Harry Kaufman. 

March 7 — George School, George School, Pennsylvania: Lily Matison, Violinist, 
a student of Mr. Edwin Bachmann; Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, a student of Mr. 
Emilio de Gogorza; Genia Wilkomirska, Dramatic Soprano, a student of Madame 
Marcella Sembrich; and Eugene Helmer, Accompanist, a student of Mr. Kaufman. 

March 10 — The Wednesday Club, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Conrad Thibault, 
Baritone, a student of Mr. de Gogorza; Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, a graduate student of 
Mr. Hofmann; Philip Frank, Violinist, a student of Mr. Zimbalist; and Theodore 
Saidenberg, Accompanist, a graduate student of Mr. Kaufman. 

Other appearances in the near future will occur on March xi before 
the Lakewood Public Schools, Lakewood, New Jersey; on April 10 
at Western Maryland College, Westminster, Maryland; and on April 
15 before the Octave Club of Norristown, Pennsylvania. 


As ANNOUNCED pteviously, the series of radio concerts by artist- 
students of The Curtis Institute is being broadcast this season 
over thirty-one stations of the Columbia Broadcasting System on 
Friday afternoons from 4 to 4:45 o'clock. Eastern Standard Time. 
The Twelfth Programme in the series was that of February 13, when 
The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Emil Mlynarski, and 
with Jacob Brodsky, Violinist, as soloist, performed the Vorspiel und 
Liebestod from Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, the First Movement 
(^Allegro tAoderatd) of Tschaikowsky's Concerto in D major. Opus 35, for 
Violin and Orchestra, and, as a concluding work, the Overture to 
Wagner's Rien^i. The soloist, Jacob Brodsky, is a student of Mr. 
Efrem Zimbalist. 

The Thirteenth Programme, broadcast on February 2.0, presented 
two groups of songs and a significant chamber music work. Henriette 
Horle, Soprano, a student of Madame Marcella Sembrich, sang Quilter's 
Noiv Sleeps the Crifnson Fetal, a German song — Charming Chloe, and 



Verdi's Caro nome from Kigoletto. Bernard Frank, a student of Mr. 
Harry Kaufman, was the accompanist in this group. The interesting 
Sonata in F minor. Opus ixo, No. i, for Viola and Piano, by Johannes 
Brahms, was next in this concert. It was played by Max AronofF, 
Viola 'Player, a student of Dr. Louis Bailly, and Florence Frantz, 
Pianist, a student of Madame Isabelle Vengerova. Lastly, Conrad 
Thibault, Baritone, a student of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza, sang Schu- 
mann's Intermezxp ^.nd Schone Fremde, Duparc's Chanson triste, the Old 
English song — My Lovely Celia, and Tours' Mother o' Mine. Joseph 
Rubanoff, a student of Mr. Kaufman, was accompanist. 


PARTICIPATING in thc annual mid-winter concert of the Matinee 
Musical Club, in the Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel 
on February ii, Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, was heard as soloist in 
a group of songs .... Shortly following this, on February 17, an 
entire programme was presented before the Matinee Musical Club by 
the Connell Quartet, of the Institute, singing selections from operas in 
concert form. Those who sang were Helen Jepson, Soprano, Rose 
Bampton, Contralto, Albert Mahler, Tenor, and Alfred De Long, Baritone; 
their accompanist was Sylvan Levin .... Florence Irons, Soprano, 
sang for the Club on March 3 . 

Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, gave a recital on the afternoon of Febru- 
ary 12. at the Huntingdon Valley Country Club. 

Selma Amansky, Soprano, participated as vocal soloist in the recent 
concert of the Society for Contemporary Music on the evening of 
February 2.5. 

Leona Wolson, Violinist, played in Union City, New Jersey on 
February 2.7. 

Alice Chalifoux, Harpist, was soloist at the East Baptist Church 
of Philadelphia on the evening of March i. 

On the evening of March 5 a recital was given for the New Century 
Club in Wilmington, Delaware by Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, Philip 
Frank, Violinist, and Eugene Helmer, Accompanist. 

Carol Deis, Soprano, winner of the First Award for women in the 
recent Atwater Kent National Contest and now a student at The 
Curtis Institute, sang on March 7 for the Glee Club of the West Chester 
Normal School of West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

i 172 1 


Faculty Activities 


HE EIGHTH Facultv Rccital of the season was given by Mr. 
Efrem Zimbalist, Violinist, with Mr. Harry Kaufman at the 
Piano, on Monday evening, March i. The programme 
included Max Reger's Sonata in A major (for violin alone), 
the Adagio from Ludwig Spohr's Concerto in D minor, and a Vivace by 
Haydn- Auer. Then followed Jeno Hubay's Concerto No. ^, in G?ninor. 
A final group presented an Air Tendre by Mondonville-Kaufman, 
Pastelle by Joseph Achron, Valse by Schubert- Achron, and Mr. 
Zimbalist's own Concert Phantasy on Rimsky-Korsakov's Le Coq d'or. 


MR. Josef Hofmann, Pianist, made his last appearance in New York 
for this season in the Carnegie Hall recital which he gave on 
the afternoon of March 14. Later, on April 17 and 18, he will be 
heard in Philadelphia as soloist with the Philadelphia Orchestra 
under Stokowski, when he will perform Chopin's Concerto in E minor 
and his own Chromaticon, Duologue for Piano and Orchestra. 

Mr. Abram Chasins, Composer-Pianist, will broadcast over WABC 
on the evening of March 2.5 , at 10 : 30. Included in his programme will 
be the First Movement of Mr. Chasins' Concerto for Piano and Orchestra 
and a group of solos of original works. 

Miss Lucile Lawrence and Mr. Carlos Salzcdo, Harpists, were the 
soloists of the Eleventh Annual Festival organized by the National 
Association of Harpists, Inc., which took place in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, on February 9, 10, and 11. The Festival opened with a large 
ensemble of forty-five harpists representing fifteen states; this was 
conducted by Mr. Salzedo, who is president of the Association. 

I 173 I 



Glimpses of the Institute 


oo INTRODUCTION to Thc Curtis Institute of Music would be 
complete without including views of the several studios in 
which the faculty members give private instruction. In 
spite of the numerous other activities provided the student — 
the experiences of classroom, library, concert hall, rehearsals of opera, 
orchestra, and chamber music — essentially the thing he values most 
of all is the instruction attending each private lesson with his major 
teacher. By a quite natural association, the student often comes to 
regard with a sense of veneration the very scene of his momentous 
communion wath art and with the great artist who is interpreting it. 
Let us begin with a glimpse of the studio of Mr. Josef Hofmann, 
who, it will be remembered, has never been without a group of 
privately instructed students, in spite of the heavy demands on his 
time presented by his duties as Director of the Institute and Head of the 
Department of Pianoforte, in addition to his own concert work. 
His studio is large and pleasant; in the afternoon the sunlight pours 
in from the west through the windows overlooking Rittenhouse 
Square, an oasis of green tranquillity in a busy city that towers ever 
higher above it. Within the studio, all seems restful, remote from 
hurry and tumult. The two sleek black pianos, large as they are, do 
not dominate the room. The marble fireplace rises in lines that are 
serenely and amply proportioned. Reproduced as the frontispiece of 
this issue, one may see the fauns which recline upon the white mantel. 
On the w^alls are uno.btrusive canvases — the figure of a mother and 
infant, two landscapes in sunlight and in shadow, a group of red oaks. 
There is a suggestion that the occupant of this studio has a penchant 
for the humorous in two ironic etchings entitled The Dansant (present- 
ing a group of socially inclined monkeys) and Gentlemen of the Jury 
(depicting a row of grave penguins). On the desk stands a vivid 
lithograph of Paderewski. The furnishings, for the most part, are 
from the eighteenth century — wide-seated Georgian side chairs, an 
agreeable Hepplewhite sofa, graceful Sheraton tables and an early 
"knee-hole" desk, a Georgian mirror, Staffordshire vases. Restrained 
and perfectly simple in its atmosphere, this is a room in which work 
may be accomplished with pleasure. 

11175 1 

Is/lusk Calendar 

March 15-31 

15 — Swastika Quartet, Chamber Music Association Concert, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, 

16 — Philadelphia Orchestra repeating St. Matthew Passion, Gabrilowitsch conducting, Metropolitan 
Opera House, afternoon. 

17 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening. 

17 — Students of M.r. Josef Hofmaun, Madame Lubosbiif^, and M.adaine Veiigerova in third recital of Beethoven 
Sonatas, Casimir Hall, evening. 

18 — Philadelphia Chamber String Simfonietta, Bellevue-Stratford Ball Room, evening. 

18 — Students of Mr. Efreii. Zimbalist in Violin Kecital, Casimir Hall, evening. 

19 — IVozz^ck, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Metropolitan Opera House, evening. American pre- 
miere, conducted by Leopold Stokowski. 

zo — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, afternoon. 

2.0 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

ii — Sergei Rachmaninoff, Pianist, Academy of Music, afternoon. 

2.1 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch conducting, evening. 

12. — Maria Kurenko, Soprano, and Mario Chamlee, Tenor, Penn Athletic Club, evening. 

2.3 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Gabrilowitsch, evening. 

2.4 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 

14 — Paul Robeson, Baritone, Metropolitan Opera House, evening. 

15 — Philadelphia Orchestra Children's Concert, Schelling conducting, afternoon. 

ij — Willem Van den Burg, Violoncellist, Academv of Music Foyer, evening. 

15 — Students of Mr. Carlos Sal^edo in Harp Recital, Casimir Hall, evening. 

2.6 — Philadelphia Orchestra Children's Concert, Schelling conducting, afternoon. 

2.6 — Les Pecheurs de Perles, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening, Eugene Goos- 
sens conducting. 

2.6 — Ruth Page, Dancer, Penn Athletic Club Musical Association, evening. 

17 — Philadelphia Orchestra with Carlo Zecchi, Pianist, Stokowski, afternoon. 

2-7 — Radio Broadcast, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

2.8 — Philadelphia Chamber String Simfonietta Children's Concert, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford, 

2.8 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Zecchi, Stokowski, evening. 

30 — Students of Mr. Albert Meijf in Violin Recital, Casimir Hall, evening. 

31 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company. 

Apnl 1-15 

I — Students of Mr. Carlos Sal^edo in Harp Ensemble, Casimir Hall, evening. 

4 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski conducting. Performances of Weill's Lindbergh Flight and Straw- 

insky's Roi des Etoiles, assisted by the Mendelssohn Club, evening. 
5 — Philadelphia Orchestra Radio Concert, Stokowski conducting, afternoon. 
6 — Philadelphia Orchestra repeating W'eill and Strawinsky works, afternoon. 
7 — New York Metropolitan Opera Company, evening. 
9 — Carmen, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, evening. 
10 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski conducting. Special Performances: Strawinsky's Oedipus Rev and 

Prokotieff's Pas d'Acier, at Metropolitan Opera House, afternoon. 
II — Philadelphia Orchestra repeating Strawinsky and ProkotiefF works, evening. 
12. — Swastika Quartet, Chamber Music Association Concert, Ball Room of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, 

13 — Students of Mr. Edwin Bachmann in Violin Recital, Casimir Hall, evening. 
13 — Philadelphia Orchestra repeating Strawinsky and Prokotietf" works, evening. 
14 — Students of Mr. Louis Batllj in Viola Recital, Casimir Hall, evening. 
15 — Students of Mr. Anton Torello in Double Bass Recital, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

15 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski conducting, concert for the Relief Fund of the Unemployed Musi- 
cians of Philadelphia, evening. 



The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 



Rittenhouse Square 

Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II — No. 7 April, 193 1 





Editorial Comment 181 

Random Observations on the Accompanist as Interpretive 

Artist Harry Kaufman 185 

Coaching Singers Max Pons 190 

Special Lectures 193 

Faculty Activities 193 

Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts 195 

Opera 198 

Chamber Music 198 

Concert Course Recitals 199 

The Curtis Symphony Orchestra 2.00 

Radio Broadcasts loo 

Other Events 2.01 

Music Calendar 104 


Scenes from The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company's Produc- 
tion of Alban Berg's IVo^Z^ck 180 

Leopold Stokowski 181 

Harry Kaufman 186 

Artist Students of The Curtis Institute Who Sang in the Recent 

Performance of Wozz^ck 197 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Overtones 
Copyright 155 1 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 




Editorial Comment 


HEN The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, affiliated with 
The Curtis Institute of Music, achieved a greatly antici- 
pated undertaking with the production, on Thursday even- 
ing, March 19, of Alban Berg's sensational opera, Wozz^ck, 
this organization had, for the moment, the attention of the entire 
musical world of the country. Many circumstances had combined 
to make this a notable event. It was the first performance of WoZr 
•jiieck in an English-speaking country. It also was an unusual event in 
that it marked the virtual debut of Leopold Stokowski, Conductor of 
The Philadelphia Orchestra, as a conductor of grand opera. (An- 
nouncement has already been made that Mr. Stokowski will become 
one of the regular conductors of the opera company next season and 
will introduce a number of new works in addition to repeating the 
perforruance of Wozx.^ck in Philadelphia and in New York.) The 
orchestra on the occasion of Wo^PiecK s first performance in this country 
comprised the personnel of one hundred and sixteen members of The 
Philadelphia Orchestra; rarely, if ever, has an opera company in the 
United States had the opportunity to utilize an organization of in- 
strumentalists of like number and artistic standing. The unusual 
scenes and costumes were designed by Robert Edmond Jones, whose 
starkly conceived creations lent much to the impressiveness of the 
whole, while the unique lighting effects, combined with a startling 
simplicity of stage settings, achieved a success beyond that witnessed 
in any operas produced for several seasons past. The stage director 
was Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr. The impressive cast of prin- 
cipals included Anne Roselle, as Marie, Ivan Ivantzoff, as Wozx.eck, 
Bruno Korell, as The Ca-ptain, Ivan Steschenko, as The Doctor, Sergei 
Radamsky, as Andres, and Gabriel Leonoff, as The Drum-Major, most 
of whom were brought from abroad especially for this performance. 

I 1811 


Camera Portrait by Albert Petersen 

LEOPOLD STOKOWSKI, Conductor of the American Vrem'nre of ^''WoXX^cK' 

182 1 


The executives of the opera company were unsparing in the number of 
individual and full rehearsals which they permitted in the preparation 
of this w^ork, and to this generosity and wisdom may be attributed 
the remarkably smooth and coordinated production which, as a re- 
sult, was demonstrated on the evening of the public performance. 
The audience which gathered for this occasion was an unusually bril- 
liant one and included some of the most prominent figures in the musi- 
cal and artistic circles of this country. As is noted in more detail 
elsewhere in this issue. The Curtis Institute of Music contributed 
four of its artist-students in Voice to the cast of the production, and 
in the opinion of the critical press, these singers achieved marked 
success in their roles. In addition, twenty-five musicians selected 
from The Curtis Symphony Orchestra provided important stage-music 
in two scenes of the opera. Lastly, Sylvan Levin, an artist-student of 
the Institute, was chosen by Mr. Stokowski as his official represen- 
tative in the arduous task of coaching and preparing the singers and 
instrumentalists during the major part of the rehearsals which pre- 
ceded the final rehearsals under Mr. Stokowski's own supervision. 


ONE of the youngest and yet most successful departments in the 
Institute is the Department of Accompanying. It was a fairly 
unprecedented but — as events have proved! — constructive and wise 
step on the part of our Director to elevate this branch of music study 
to the dignity and rank of a major subject. In the past, this was a field 
into which a pianist very frequently drifted simply by chance or to 
which he came because of external vicissitudes. At the Institute, 
with Mr. Harry Kaufman as the department's experienced and able 
Head and Instructor, Accompanying has now become a subject which 
is studied deliberately and seriously, with as much a need for speciali- 
zation as in the case of the older and more familiar major branches 
of music study. Already a number of students have won success pro- 
fessionally in this field. Sylvan Levin, who began as a student of 
Accompanying, was soon promoted to the important position of 
official accompanist and coach of the students of Madame Sembrich, 
after which he penetrated farther into the fields of coaching and con- 

1183 1 


ducting. Theodore Saidenberg has become the professional accom- 
panist for Mr. Zimbalist and Erica Morini in their concert appearances. 
Yvonne Krinsky was professional accompanist for Henri Temianka 
during his recent American tour. Earl Fox was the professional 
accompanist for Tibor de Machula and Benjamin Grobani during their 
joint European tour this season. Elizabeth Westmoreland is ac- 
companist and coach in the Institute's Department of Opera, assisting 
students in their preparation of roles for The Philadelphia Grand 
Opera Company. Sonia Hodge has become the professional accom- 
panist of Madame Marianne Gonitch, assisting her in numerous 
concert appearances this season. Joseph Rubanoff accompanies and 
assists students in the preparation of roles in the Institute's Depart- 
ment of Operatic Acting. Sarah Lewis has been assisting in the 
preparation of the forthcoming public performances of Gabriel Faure's 
Keqtikm by the Department of Chamber Music. Other students serve 
as accompanists in Casimir Hall recitals, in the studios of the vari- 
ous teachers of the Institute, in the weekly radio broadcasts, in the 
series of Concert Course Recitals given outside of the Institute, and in 
other professional engagements of Curtis students. With so much 
already achieved in so few years, the Department of Accompanying 
is rapidly increasing in its strength and usefulness. The article by 
Mr. Kaufman which is included in this issue of OVERTONES pre- 
sents very illuminatingly several important aspects of the role of the 
accompanist as it has come to be regarded more and more generally 
in the musical world. 


Kandom Observations on the Accompanist 
as Interpretive Artist 


HE STUDENT of iTiusic, Specializing in some particular 
instrument with the view of winning recognition and fame 
as an interpretive artist, assuming that he possesses the 
necessary equipment to achieve that end, attempts to deal, 
according to his lights, with the raw material of certain conventional 
symbols — that is, the actual notes^set down in logically ordered 
patterns. Let us consider the nature and function of the above- 
mentioned equipment as well as the qualifications requisite in any 
attempt to penetrate the hidden secrets of the art the student is seeking 
to master. The artist's mission is to unravel — to "de-code," as it 
were — the message latent in these musical signs and to reveal that 
message tellingly; the mere reproduction, the sheer literal presentation, 
of certain note-patterns, while requiring in itself a very considerable 
degree of technical skill, would nevertheless leave the music's deeper 
import undisclosed. 

It would seem that the individual best fitted to undertake this task 
would be one richly gifted by nature with those resources of intellect 
and those qualities of heart and soul which might enable him to dis- 
cern the deeper meanings concealed between the lines of any work 
with whose interpretation he may be concerned. And, by the same 
token, the more highly sensitized his musical consciousness, the more 
refined his susceptibility to aesthetic promptings, the quicker and 
surer will be his grasp of the musical and poetic content of a given 

Now, strange and incredible as it may seem, the accompanist 
need not differ in this respect from the soloist — nor, for that matter, 
in any other respect except in his attitude toward the soloist. For if 
the accompanist does not possess a degree of musical comprehension 



HARRY KAUFMAN, Head of the Department of Accompanying 



equal to that of the soloist, he cannot see eye to eye with him and 
consequently will be unable to evaluate justly the relative importance 
of any detail of the music allotted to himself. In like measure with 
the soloist, the accompanist too should possess those same qualities 
of poetic imaginativeness and the same musical insight and grasp of 
the inner meaning of any given composition. But there are those 
who argue that the accompanist requires, in addition to those qualities 
partly enumerated above, something akin to a sixth sense — a kind of 
musical antennae — which would enable him to catch every subtle 
and meaningful intention of an associate-performer whose conception 
might reasonably differ from his own. In answer to those who argue 
thus, I would say that the accompanist who is fundamentally musical 
already possesses that faculty of divination if he will but cultivate 
the power of eager concentration upon the piece of music as a whole 
and not be tempted to dissociate his own part from the entire fabric 
of the musical picture. Similarly, he must avoid giving heed to 
the promptings of his own musical judgment which might at times 
conflict with the intentions of the soloist; nor should he be led into 
giving a false importance to details of minor significance, in the matter 
of gradations of tempo and nuance, without due regard for their right- 
ful place in the scheme of the music. However, with a keen ear and 
relentless vigilance, the accompanist need not fear going very far 
astray in his understanding of another's meaning. I strongly suspect 
that those who deny the possession of the gift for accompanying to 
most pianists must regard singers and instrumentalists as so many 
queer fowl who are afflicted with certain musically morbid idiosyn- 
crasies and disreputable interpretative habits, and that, consequently, 
their behavior — especially under the strain of public performance — 
is both unpredictable and undiscoverable for the poor benighted as- 
sistant "at the piano." 

These doubting Thomases surely cannot believe that the ability 
to follow sympathetically — one might really "sympathize" with the 
soloist under certain circumstances! — the vagaries and ineptitudes of 
certain performers (self-appointed soloists) would indicate anything 
more than a proficiency on the part of the accompanist at "hide-and- 
seek" or "peekaboo, I see you." I am convinced that any serious- 



minded musician choosing accompanying as an occupation might 
under such conditions maintain the rate of his income but not his 
self-repect or any great love of his fellow-artists. While, fortunately, 
such temporary musical mesalliances are the exception, they cannot, 
however, be entirely avoided and they frequently bear witness to the 
unenviable plight of the high-minded musician who sees himself in 
such circumstances condemned by the nature of his role to break 
faith with his cherished ideals and conceptions of musical values, 
since to keep faith with these by treating the music as he understands 
it might lead to his being censured as intrusive, self-assertive, disloyal, 
bad-mannered. The ethics of such a situation seem to demand that 
outwardly at least the accompanist be a collaborator and obedient 
servant and not an obstructionist or rebel, that he be at one, heart 
and soul, with the solo artist. Yet how difficult it must be, at times, 
to identify oneself with the deliberate perpetrations of some of our 
musical prophets who, being at complete variance with one's own 
regard for the mood and style of a particular musical work, commit 
what seem like musical atrocities — who outrage and violate one's 
own sense of rhythm, of dynamic proportion, and of tonal beauty, 
or one's feeling for phrase and structural outline. What self-disci- 
pline must one exercise in order to remain passive and outwardly com- 
posed — ingratiating and even approbative — while one's most sacred 
feelings of musical decency and one's faith in the dignity of art are 
being ruthlessly affronted. Beware of the pseudo-artists and impos- 
tors who occasion such unhappiness; and remember that a man is 
judged by the company he keeps! 

However, the picture has its more cheerful aspects, and while 
there are bleak moments in the experience of every high-minded 
devotee of great art, the student aspirant to accompanistic glory 
and honor must not forget what great musical joy awaits him when 
collaborating with an artist worthy of the name, one whose every 
thought and feeling about the music being played strikes a respon- 
sive chord in his own heart. He must remember that in the playing 
of sonatas or other concerted works where the piano part is of equal 
importance with the other instrument or instruments, as the case 
may be, he is given the opportunity to bring to bear every resource 

1188 1 


of heart and intellect at his command. Furthermore, that even in 
the less conspicuous role of mere accompanist he has what should be 
a gratifying and welcome responsibility — that of providing the 7nise 
en scene, so to speak, of every song or instrumental work. Let him 
be grateful for the task which falls to him of bringing into greater 
relief the beauties of the soloist's performance, by providing the ap- 
propriate kind of background — one which, in its exquisite regard for 
every subtle variation in tempo and dynamics, with a kind of musical 
clairvoyance that seizes the intention of composer and interpreter 
alike, is capable of an intimate fusion with the artistic consciousness 
of the soloist. And what wonderful opportunities for beautiful piano 
playing per se in the songs of Hugo Wolf, Richard Strauss, and other 
moderns, both German and French, not to mention the songs of the 
older great masters, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and so forth! 
And what shall we say of the wealth of ensemble works in which the 
exacting pianistic problems demand an equipment, both technical 
and musical, the achievement of which every solo piano student 
might enthusiastically strive for! 

But the student accompanist aiming to refine and sensitize his 
musical consciousness that it may be better fitted to grasp those wireless 
signals which the soloist is always sending out in the course of his 
performance must remember that only through a rich and varied ex- 
perience of playing for artists of different temperament and musical 
creed can he acquire that flexibility and power of adaptation which 
spring naturally from a knowledge and recognition of the many pos- 
sibilities for minute differentiation and variance of opinion in the musi- 
cal interpretation of, or intellectual approach to, a given work. 
Gifted with a sound musical nature, rich imagination, and technique 
sufficient to cope with the more difficult pianistic problems in his 
work, the student of accompanying may reasonably hope to develop 
and perfect those qualities and attributes of brain and heart which 
need only the stimulus of contact and association with players and 
singers of artistic integrity in order to blossom fully and luxuriantly. 


Coaching Singers 


ET US consider the problem of the vocal student from the 
very beginning. If a child shows a desire to play an in- 
strument, w^hatever it may be, this automatically proves 
either talent, musical feeling, or at least a musical ear. A 
voice, however, is purely a physical phenomenon born in an individual ; 
it may be of the finest or poorest material — it is there, regardless of 
the possessor's background, intelligence, or talent. Here already we 
meet a problem unlike that of the instrumentalist. Furthermore, a 
voice can only be "discovered" at an age when the instrumentalist 
may already have had years of practise and development. 

But let us take a case where we find voice material, some talent, 
average intelligence, a good ear, and a serious desire to become a 
singer. First of all, the student must build his own instrument. 
Out of the material nature has given him, he must develop range, 
quality, and volume. Now comes the singer's great handicap. As 
his instrument — vocal chords, and so forth — is within himself, he 
of course hears his voice differently than the outsider does; thus he 
needs a constant listener, first his vocal teacher, afterwards his coach. 
Let me give an idea of the complex task of a coach, and one will 
better understand why this work is so fascinating. Of course I can 
give only the technical details here — the great factor of teaching, that 
of inspiring the student, should naturally be the aim of every teacher. 
Take the case of a student advanced enough for the study of an oper- 
atic role. First come the various styles, each requiring a different way 
of producing sound; one cannot sing Wagner with the same production 
as Mozart, for instance, or again, Debussy. Then there are the tempi 
which have to be regulated according to the qualitv of voice material 
and degree of musical vitality of the singer. To put this into plain 
words, what sounds fast for one person sounds slow for another. 
Connected with the subject of tempo we have what are called tradi- 
tions, accepted ways of singing certain phrases, which have been es- 
tablished in the course of time by either the composers or famous 
singers or conductors. I wish to emphasize that one has to be very 
careful about these traditions; some are still effective, while some 

1190 I 


have faded in the course of years and have become decidedly passe. 
It is therefore the duty of the coach to exercise his artistic discrimina- 
tion in advising the student accordingly. 

Next we have the subject of rhythm and dynamics (so poorly de- 
veloped in many singers), the phrasing which sometimes varies ac- 
cording to the singer's breath control, the shading and dramatic ac- 
cents, the explanation of the orchestral score so that the singer knows 
when he is singing against orchestral groups which may either blend 
with or cover up his voice, the explanation of the construction of 
the composition so that the student learns his "musical values," the 
pronunciation and enunciation of the texts in their various languages, 
not to forget facial expression, gestures, carriage — in short, all the 
elements which make up either the art of acting or platform deport- 
ment. Take for instance a figure like that of the dwarf Mime in 
Siegfried, how little of it is really purely straight singing; he shouts, 
he whines, he whimpers, he chokes with rage, one must be able almost 
to "taste" the hypocrisy in his voice when he tells his tales of false- 
hood and flattery. And the artist singing this role may probablv have 
to appear on the next night as David in Die Meistersinger, full of youth- 
ful buoyancy and innocent mischief. One more example, this time 
speaking of creating effects by entirely different methods. Let us 
choose at random Meeresstille, by Schubert. In one page, with just 
a few legato chords, the composer has wrought a miracle, a drama of 
greater musical intensity than a whole Wagner opus. Here the singer 
must portray the silence just before the storm, all Nature breathlessly, 
fearfully waiting for the tempest to burst forth. To accomplish this, 
still preserving the style and without employing any "outside" ef- 
fects, has proved to be the Waterloo of many a singer. 

One must speak here also of the tremendous difficulty which faces 
the American vocal student. In Europe, the singer, while of course 
learning different languages, still looks forward to a career of singing 
in his mother tongue, though not necessarily in his mother country. 
The American student, however, must learn his whole repertoire in 
three or more languages not his own, and he has afterwards to com- 
pete with those foreign artists who are singing in their own languages. 
Students do not seem to realize this fact. Time and again one meets 
singers who pronounce more or less accurately what thev are singing 
but have only a vague idea of the meaning of the text and word. This 

1191 I 


condition should be bettered. Let us not forget that the music was 
composed to express the text; otherwise we become mere parrots 
repeating sounds. And let me take this opportunity to warn against 
another thing: there are still too many singers whose only concern 
in looking at a composition is the vocal part — the question of whether 
it "lies" in his voice, whether there are some high notes in it which 
the gallery would relish, whether it touches the "weak register" in 
his voice which he has been too lazy all his life to develop properly. 

Let us be artists, let us realize the privilege of being allowed to 
sing those masterworks left us by men of genius who starved and slaved 
for their ideal, who asked for neither success nor plenty, who lived 
with only the one thought^ — to create. 

In conclusion, let me point out the necessary equipment which the 
singer needs to start upon his actual career. He must have mastered 
the various styles of singing, each with its different vocal production: 
the early styles where the voice is used as a purely lyric instrument; 
then, beginning with Schubert, the dramatic, personal type of singing; 
the scores of Wagner, Strauss, and their followers, requiring great 
endurance power; the modern French with their "overtone" effects; 
and still more difficult demands made by the ultra-modern composers. 
Then there is the threefold demand on memory — music, test, and acting, 
the last bringing with it untold complications and dangers, for here we 
find situations requiring singing while lying down, running, fighting, 
or even swimming (as in Das Kheingolcf), without at any time losing 
touch with the conductor, and all to be accomplished, necessarily, 
without the audience's noticing any effort. And the stage, in spite 
of modern inventions, is full of pitfalls, there is but one step between 
the sublime and the ridiculous; the slightest mistake, such as walking 
to a wrong exit, or tripping, may completely destroy the atmosphere 
that should prevail. (How well Richard Wagner knew this when 
he made Beckmesser stumble over the little Blumenh'ugel before he 
starts his ill-gotten and for him ill-fated Meisterlied.^ 

If I have painted things perhaps a little darkly, it is with no inten- 
tion of discouraging; instead, I am thinking of an old adage: "Fore- 
warned is forearmed. ' ' There is a glorious reward at the end of it all. 
It should be worth fighting for ! But it requires all that there is within 
us: love, perseverance, sacrifice, and — would I could write it in 
flaming letters!— WORK. 

1 192 1 

special Lectures 

ijoxTiNuiNG the practice in past seasons of inviting eminent 
authorities outside of the Institute to appear here in lec- 
tures, The Curtis Institute of Music on the evening of March 
i6, presented to its students a talk by Oscar Thompson, 
Music Critic of the Neiv York Evening Post, who discussed questions of 
particular interest to music students and intended professional mu- 
sicians, taking as his theme the general subject of "Music Criticism." 
Mr. Thompson will join our Faculty at the opening of the season of 
1931-1932. to conduct courses in music criticism. 

A second lecture was given during the following week, on the 
evening of March 14, by Henry Bellamann, critic, writer, and teacher, 
of New York City. His subject was: "The Musician and His 

Faculty Activities 


]EXT in the current series of Faculty Recitals will be a con- 
cert of chamber works to be given by Madame Isabelle 
Vengerova, Pianist, Madame Lea Luboshutz, Violinist, 
and Mr. Felix Salmond, Violoncellist, on Thursday evening, 
April 30. The final Faculty Recital for the season will be given by 
Mr. Josef Hofmann, Pianist, on Tuesday evening. May 12.. 


MR. JOSEF HOFMANN, Pianist, will be the last soloist of the season 
with the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokow- 
ski, at its pair of concerts on April 17 and 18. He will play the Chopin 
Concerto in E minor and his own Chromaticon, Dialogue for Piano and 
Orchestra. On April ii Mr. Hofmann will give a recital in Albany, 
New York, to be followed by one in Chicago, Illinois, on April 2.6. 
In May he will be heard in Mt. Vernon, Iowa, in a recital on the 
evening of the 7th and as soloist with the Chicago Symphony Or- 
chestra, under Frederick Stock, on the afternoon of the 9th. 

1 193 I 


Mr. Harry Kaufman, Pianist, collaborated with the Musical Art 
Quartet in its concert in New York City on March 2.4. Mr. Kaufman 
was at the piano in the performance of Ernest Chausson's Concert in 
D Major, for Piano, Violin, and String Quartet, which was heard in 
the Musical Art Quartet's concert at the Institute on March 11. 

Mr. Carlos Salzedo, Harpist, will contribute to the Festival of 
Chamber Music to be held at the Library of Congress, in Washington, 
on April 2.3-15 . He will play the harp part in a suite of music of the 
Troubadours, which he has harmonized, for Viola d'Amore, Viola da 
Gamba, Soprano, and Harp. 

Mr. Abram Chasins, Composer-Pianist, was represented by one of 
his most recent compositions for orchestra, entitled Parade, preceded 
by his Flirtation in a Chinese Garden, in the recent concerts by Arturo 
Toscanini and the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra on 
April 8, 10, and 12. (when the programme was broadcast over the 
radio). Mr. Toscanini will perform the work once more on the 
evening of April 18. 

Miss Lucile Lawrence, Harpist, was soloist with the Chamber 
Orchestra of Boston, Massachusetts, Nicholas Slonimsky conducting, 
when that organization gave its third New York concert of the season, 
on April 11, at the New School for Social Research. 

Miss Xenia Nazarevitch, Pianist, successfully gave her first New 
York recital on Saturday afternoon, March ii, in Town Hall, before 
a large audience. Her programme included Beethoven's Thirty-Two 
Variations, Moussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, and works by 
Rameau-Godowsky, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Medtner, Debussy, and 
Liszt. On Sunday, March 19, Miss Nazarevitch played the Mouss- 
orgsky Pictures at an Exhibition as part of a Moussorgsky Memorial 
Concert given at International House, New York City, when Mr. 
Olin Downes, of the Neiv York Tifnes, also participated, contribut- 
ing an address on the composer. 

1 194 } 

Student Activities 


HE SEVENTH Studciits' CoHcert for the current season was that which 
occurred on Tuesday evening, March 17, when the last of the three pro- 
grammes of Beethoven's Sonatas for Violin and Piano was heard. This 
interesting series was presented by students of Mr. Hofmann, Madame 
Luboshutz, and Madame Vengerova. The last of the programmes in- 
cluded the following works: Sonata in F major. Opus 14 ("Spring"), played by Celia 
Gomberg, Violinist, student of Madame Luboshutz, and Jeanne Behrend, Pianist, gra.d- 
uate student of Mr. Hofmann; Sonata in G major. Opus 96, performed by Ethel Stark, 
Violinist, student of Madame Luboshutz, and Florence Frantz, Pianist, student of 
Madame Vengerova; and, in conclusion, the Sonata in A ?najor. Opus 47 ("Kreutzer"), 
in which those who played were Judith Poska, Violinist, graduate student of Madame 
Luboshutz, and Joseph Levine, Pianist, student of Mr. Hofmann. 

On the following evening, Wednesday, March 18, violin students of Mr. Zim- 
balist were heard in the Eighth Concert. Iso Briselli opened the programme with 
Mozart's Concerto in A major. No. 5. Felix Slatkin followed with Lalo's Symfhonie 
espagnole. Ernest Chausson's Po}me was played by Carmela Ippolito. The final 
work, Frederick Stock's Concerto in D minor, was performed by Oskar Shumsky. At 
the piano, during this concert, was Theodore Saidenberg, a graduate student of Mr. 
Kaufman in accompanying. 

Harp students of Mr. Salzedo appeared in the Ninth Concert, on the evening of 
the next Wednesday, March 15. Flora Greenwood was heard in a group of XVII 
and XVIII century works, including a Gavotte from Rameau's The Temple of Glory, 
Corelli's Giga, Haydn's Theme and Variations, and a Bourree by Bach. A more modern 
group, comprising Pierne's Impromftu-Ca-price, the Chanson de Gtiillot-Martin har- 
monized by A. Perilhou, and Debussy's En Bateau, was performed by Victoria Mur- 
dock. Mr. Salzedo's own Five Poetical Studies were then played by Mary Griffith 
and these were followed by Gabriel Faure's hnpromftu which was performed by 
Alice Chalifoux. The closing work was Maurice Ravel's Introduction and Allegro, 
in which Reva Reatha was soloist while an accompaniment was provided at the 
piano by Mr. Salzedo. 

Monday evening, March 30, marked the Tenth Concert, presented by violin 
students of Mr, Meiff. The opening number, Eugene Ysaye's Sonata in E minor. 
Opus 7.-J, No. 4, for Violin alone, was played by Charles Jaffe. Frederick Vogelge- 
sang, with Ralph Berkowitz at the piano, followed with Vieuxtemps' Fantasia- 



Appassionafa, Opus 35, and an Allegro by Fiocco-Bent-O'Neill. A Fantasy on the 
Thetnes of the Opera "Tiefland,'^ by d'AIbert-MeifF, was performed by Nathan Snader, 
with Florence Frantz assisting at the piano. Harold Kohon, accompanied by Eugene 
Helmer, presented the First Movement from Spohr's Concerto No. g, in D minor. Opus 
55, and Wieniawski's Scher7j)-Tarentelle. Charles JafFe was heard once more at the 
close of the programme, assisted by Florence Frantz, in the First Movement from 
Carl Goldmark's Concerto in A minor. Opus i8. The pianists who assisted are students 
of accompanying under Mr. Kaufman. 

The Eleventh Concert, on Wednesday evening, April i, proved to be a "Concert 
of Music for Ten Harps in Orchestral Formation" by students of Mr. Salzedo and 
Miss Lawrence, conducted by Mr. Salzedo. The programme first presented works 
from the XVI to XVIII centuries: "a Pavane by an unknown composer of the XVI 
century, a Gavotte by Padre Giambattista Martini, a Sarabande by Couperin, and 
Rameau's La Joyeuse, all arranged by Mr. Salzedo. Then followed works of Mr. 
Salzedo's own composition — Fraichcur, Recessional, Fanfare, Cortege, La Desirade, and 
Chanson dans la nuit. An arrangement of Claude Debussy's La Cathedrale engloutie 
brought the concert to a close. Those who participated in this ensemble of harps 
were: William Cameron, Alice Chalifoux, Flora Greenwood, Mary Griffith, Isabel 
Ibach, Mary Jane Mayhew, Victoria Murdock, Reva Reatha, Maryce Robert, and 
Marjorie Tyre. 

Following the Spring Vacation in the early part of April, two further Students' 
Concerts have occurred. The Twelfth Concert, on Monday evening, April 13, was 
given by violin students of Mr. Bachmann. Lily Matison played the Sonata in A 
minor by Pasquali-Ysaye and Castelnuovo-Tedesco's Italian Concerto in G minor. 
The Beethoven Concerto in D major. Opus 61, was performed byLadislaus Steinhardt. 
Florence Frantz, student of Mr. Kaufman in accompanying, was at the piano. 

A programme of chamber music by students of Dr. Bailly comprised the Thir- 
teenth Concert, on Tuesday evening, April 14. Beethoven's String Quartet in F f?2ajor. 
Opus 18, No. I was played by Paul Gershman and Philip Frank, Violins, Leon Fren- 
gut, Viola, and Frank Miller, Violoncello. Mozart's Trio in E flat major, for Piano, 
Clarinet, and Viola (Kochel 498) was next heard, with Jennie Robinor, James Collis, 
and Max Aronoff as performers. The concluding work was Brahms' Quintet in F 
minor. Opus 34, for Piano and String Quartet, played by Joseph Levine, Piano, Gama 
Gilbert and Banjamin Sharlip, Violins, Max AronofF, Viola, and Orlando Cole, 

At the present writing, at least fifteen more Students' Concerts have been sched- 
uled to take place during the balance of the season. These will include concerts by 
students of Mr. Torello, Mr. Saperton, Madame Vengerova, Mr. Salmond, Mr. de 
Gogorza, Mr. Hofmann, Miss van Emden, Mr. Tabuteau, Mr. Connell, Mr. von 
Wymetal, Jr., and Dr. Bailly. (The dates of these events are listed in the Music 
Calendar on the final page of this issue.) 



EDWINA EUSTIS, Mezxo Soprano 


Camera Portraits by Albert Petersen 



I 197 I 



IN WHAT has proved to be the most widely-discussed event of the present music 
season — the performance of Alban Berg's ultra-modern opera, Wozzeck, by The 
Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, affiliated with The Curtis Institute of Music — 
four artist-students of our Department of Voice were among those who sang roles in 
a work which had the distinction of being the first full-length opera to be conducted 
by Leopold Stokowski. This performance took place at the Metropolitan Opera 
House in Philadelphia on Thursday evening, March 19, and constituted the American 
premiere of Wozz^ck. Curtis Institute students appeared in the cast as follows: 

First Artisan Abrasha Robofsky, Baritone 

Second Artisan Benjamin De Loache, Baritone 

The Idiot Albert Mahler, Tenor 

Margret Edwina Eustis, MezXP Soprano 

In addition to these, twenty-five players selected from The Curtis Symphony Orches- 
tra made up the stage band which was required for this performance. The Stage 
Director was Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr., of the Institute, and the Assistant 
Conductor was an artist-student, Svlvan Levin, whom Mr. Stokowski signally 
honored by entrusting to him the responsibility of coaching and preparing the singers 
in their parts during the many rehearsals conducted prior to Mr. Stokowski's return 
to Philadelphia. 

Bizet's ever-popular Carmen was the seventeenth presentation of The Phila- 
delphia Grand Opera Company at the Academy of Music on Thursday evening, April 
9. In this performance Ina I3ourskaya, through the courtesy of the Metropolitan 
Opera Company, was heard in the title role, with Ralph Errolle, John Charles 
Thomas, and Ivan Steschenko as other outstanding artists in the cast. Once m.ore 
Curtis Institute voice students sang along with these guest-artists, as follows : 

Micaela Charlotte Symons, Soprano 

Frasquita YieXen^t^son, Soprano 

Mercedes Rose Bampton, MezXP Soprano 

Don Caire Benjamin Grobani, Baritone 

Ketnendado Albert Mahler, Tenor 

Morales Conrad Thibault, Baritone 

Mr. Eugene Goossens conducted the opera, which was staged by Mr. Wilhelm von 
Wymetal, Jr. 

On Thursday evening, April 16, Richard Wagner's Tannhduser will close the 
current season. In this performance, artist-students of the Institute will again be 


THE FIFTH and last concert in this season's series of Chamber Music concerts in the 
Pennsylvania Museum of Art at Fairmount will be presented by artist-students of 
The Curtis Institute on Sunday evening, April 19. Dr. Bailly, under whose 
artistic direction these concerts are given, has announced the following programme: 
The opening number will be Johann Sebastian Bach's Sixth Brandenburg Concerto, 

1198 1 


for Violas with Accompaniment of 'Celli and Double Basses (Organ Accompaniment 
by F. A. Gevaert). Leon Frengut and Max Aronoff are to be viola soloists, Robert 
Cato will be at the Organ, while Louis Vyner, a student in Conducting of Mr. 
Mlynarski, will conduct the work. This will be followed by Sibelius 's Canxprxetta 
for String Orchestra, also to be conducted by Louis Vyner. The last number will be 
one of especial interest — Gabriel Faure's Kequietti for Soli, Chorus, Organ, and Orches- 
tra, its performance on this evening being the American premiere of the work in 
concert form. Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, a student of Madame Sembrich and 
Miss Mario, and Conrad Thibault, Baritone, a student of Mr. de Gogorza, will be 
Soloists, Robert Cato will be at the Organ, and Dr. Bailly will conduct. The stu- 
dents playing in the orchestra in all these numbers are selected from The Curtis Sym- 
phony Orchestra, while the students in the chorus are selected from the Department 
of Voice of the Institute. 

Following its first appearance this season before the Philadelphia Chamber 
Music Association, on March 15, the Swastika Quartet participated, with the Casi- 
mir Quartet, in a second concert on April ix, in the Ball Room of the Bellevue-Strat- 
ford Hotel. The Swastika Quartet also played at the Cosmopolitan Club on the 
afternoon of April 2.. 


FURTHER recitals have been given in the series of concerts presented before schools, 
colleges, clubs, and similar groups by artist-students of The Curtis Institute: 

March xi — The Lakewood Public Schools, Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation, and Council of Jewish Women, Lakewood, New Jersey: William Harms, 
Pianist, a student of Mr. Hofmann; Henriette Horle, Soprano, a student of Madame 
Sembrich; Abe Burg, Violinist, a student of Mr. Bachmann; and Joseph RubanofF, 
Accompanist, a student of Mr. Kaufman. 

April ID — Western Maryland College, Westminster, Maryland: Ladislaus 
Steinhardt, Violinist, a student of Mr. Bachmann; Conrad Thibault, Baritone, a stu- 
dent of Mr. de Gogorza; Edna Corday, Soprano, a graduate student of Madame 
Sembrich; and Joseph Rubanoff, Accompanist , student of Mr. Kaufman. 

April 15 — Norristown Octave Club, Norristown, Pennsylvania: a trio of stu- 
dents under the artistic direction of Dr. Bailly — Jean-Marie Robinault, Pianist, a 
student of Mr. Saperton, Paul Gershman, Violinist, a student of Mr. Zimbalist, and 
Adine Barozzi, Violoncellist, a student of Dr. Bailly in Chamber Music; Natalie 
Bodanskaya, Soprano, a student of Madame Sembrich; and Sarah Lewis, Accompanist, 
a student of Mr. Kaufman. 

Other appearances in the near future will occur on April 16 at the University of 
Delaware, Newark, Delaware; on April 17 before the Salon Music Club, Lambertville, 
New Jersey; on April 14 at the Westtown School, Westtown, Pennsylvania; on April 
2.8 at Marywood College, Scranton, Pennsylvania; on May i before the Haddon 
Fortnightly Club, Haddonfield, New Jersey; and on May i before the Cape May 
County Art League, Cape May, New Jersey. 

1 199 I 



A COMPLEMENTARY concert by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra will be tendered the 
city of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, by The Curtis Institute on Saturday evening, 
May 9. The soloists with the orchestra will be Rose Bampton, Contralto, a stu- 
dent of Mr. Connell, and Joseph Levine, Pianist, a student of Mr. Hofmann. The con- 
ducting of the orchestra will be divided between Sylvan Levin and Louis Vyner, 
students of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting, and Mr. Ward-Stephens of Harrisburg. 

Fifty members of The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, who will be conducted by 
Mr. Ward -Stephens, and four artist-students of voice — Natalie Bodanskaya, Paceli 
Diamond, Albert Mahler, and Benjamin De Loache — will participate in the perform- 
ance of Mozart's Mass in C minor, w^hich will be given at the Harrisburg Music Festi- 
val on Thursday, May 7. This orchestra group of fifty wall also play and Miss 
Bampton will sing for the second day of the Festival, Friday, May 8, when Parker's 
Hora Novissima and other works will be given. 


RADIO CONCERTS by artist-students of The Curtis Institute continue to be broadcast 
this season over thirty-one stations of the Columbia Broadcasting System on 
Friday afternoons from 4 to 4:45 o'clock, Eastern Standard Time. The 
Fourteenth Programme w^as that of February zy, when vocal soloists were heard in 
operatic selections, accompanied by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, under the 
direction of Sylvan Levin, student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting. Selections were 
played from the First Scene of Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, with Natalie Bodan- 
skaya, Soprano, singing Gretel and Ruth Gordon, Mezx.o Soprano, singing Hansel. 
Both are students of Madame Sembrich. This was followed with selections from the 
Garden Scene of Gounod's Faust; here Marguerite was sung by Helen Jepson, Soprano; 
Martha by Paceli Diamond, Me%xp Soprano; Faust by Albert Mahler, Tenor; and Mephis- 
topbeles by Alfred De Long, Bass-Baritone. Paceli Diamond is a student of Miss van 
Emden; the other three vocalists are students of Mr. Connell, Miss Jepson being a 

The Fifteenth Programme, on March 6, presented one vocalist and two instru- 
mentalists, as soloists. Cecille Geschichter, Pianist, a student of Madame Venger- 
ova, played Beethoven's Sonata in C sharp ?ninor. Opus 17, No. 2. QQuasi Una Fantasia). 
Benjamin De Loache, Baritone, a student of Mr. de Gogorza, sang two groups of songs 
including the Invocation of Orpheus from Peri's Euridice, Gretchaninow's Over the 
Steppe, the Old English song: The Jolly Young Waterman, and Sidney Homer's Uncle 
Rome. He was assisted at the piano by Joseph RubanofF, a student of Mr. Kaufman. 
Abe Burg, Violinist, a student of Mr. Bachmann, assisted at the piano by Eugene 
Helmer, student of Mr. Kaufman in accompanying, contributed the following group 
of solos: Air on G String, by Mattheson-Burmester; Rondo in G major, by Mozart- 
Kreisler; Spanish Serenade, by Chaminade-Kreisler; and Malaguena, by Pablo de 

On March 13 a Sixteenth Programme was played by The Curtis Symphony 
Orchestra, conducted by Sylvan Levin, assisted by two student soloists. The First 
Movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. ;, in C minor was followed by Sibelius 's 
Swan of Tuonela, in which the English Horn soloist was Robert Hester, a student of 

I 200 1 


Mr. Tabuteau. In the concluding work, the First Movement of Tschaikowsky's 
Concerto No. i, in B flat minor, for Piano and Orchestra, the soloist was Jorge Bolet, a 
student of Mr. Saperton. 

Chamber music and vocal solos made up the Seventeenth Programme, on March 
lo. Selma Amansky, Soprano, a student of Miss van Emden, was assisted at the 
piano by Joseph Rubanoff in Fourdrain's The Sun and the Sea and \"erdi's Pace, Pace. 
The Casimir Quartet, under the artistic direction of Dr. Baillv, played Beethoven's 
String Quartet in F major. Opus iS, No. i. The personnel of the Casimir Quartet 
consists of Paul Gershman and Philip Frank, Violins, Leon Frengut, Viola, and Frank 
Miller, Violoncellist. The concluding number, Strauss 's Serenade in E flat major, was 
played by The Curtis Institute Woodwind Ensemble, under the artistic direction of 
Mr. Tabuteau. 

Another programme by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra was presented in the 
Eighteenth broadcast, on March 17. The orchestra was conducted on this occasion 
by Louis \Vner, a student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting, and there were two assist- 
ing soloists. x\lbert Mahler, Tenor, a student of Mr. Connell, sang Walther s Preislied 
from Wagner's Die Meistersinger, and the Aria "To My Beloved Hasten" from Mozart's 
Don Giovanni. Celia Gomberg, Violinist, a student of Madame Luboshutz, was the 
soloist in Spohr's Concerto No. ?', in A minor. Opus 47, for Violin and Orchestra. The 
programme was concluded with Strauss 's Till Eulensfiegel. 


DEPARTMENT OF VOICE: Albert Mahler, Tenor, a student of Mr. Connell, has been 
engaged by the Cincinnati Opera Company to sing leading and secondary roles 
three times a week in its productions during the Summer Season from mid- 
June to mid-August. Among the works in which Mahler will sing leading roles are 
Fidelio, L'Oracolo, The Bartered Bride, Mefistofeles, and Madaf?ia Butterfly. The Music 
Director and Conductor of the Cincinnati Opera Company is Mr. Isaac van Grove, 
Conductor of the Chicago Civic Opera Company. 

Benjamin Grobani, Baritone, a student of Mr. de Gogorza, having recently 
returned from a season of concertizing in important European capitals, will give 
his first Philadelphia recital on Tuesday evening, April ii, in the Academy of 
Music Foyer. His programme is a long and ambitious one, including songs by Peri, 
Lully, and Gluck; Brahms, Wolf, Pfitzner, and Grieg; Faure, Chausson, Szulc, and 
Ravel; Cyril Scott, Quilter, Moussorgsky, Dargomijsky, and Manuel de Falla — 
works which will be sung in Italian, French, German, English, Russian, and Spanish. 
He will be assisted at the piano by Theodore Saidenberg, a graduate student of Mr. 

Rose Bampton, Contralto, a student of Mr. Connell, sang two songs bv Mrs. 
John Braun, a student in Composition of Mr. Scalero, at a meeting of the Cosmo- 
politan Club of Philadelphia on the afternoon of March 15. Mrs. Braun was at the 
piano. ... On April 3 Miss Bampton participated in the Good Friday Evening 
Service at the Baptist Temple, Philadelphia, and on z\pril 13 she was soloist with the 
Guido Chorus, of Buffalo, New York. 

Carol Deis, Soprano, winner of the Atwater Kent .Award for 1930, and now a 
student of Mr. de Gogorza, sang for the Shriners, at Zorah Temple, Terre Haute, 

I 201 1 


Indiana, on April 9. She will be heard over the radio on April 13, when she is to 
sing from Station WABC, New York City, during the Swift Hour. 

Agnes Davis, Soprano, and Edward Kane, Tenor, both students of Mr. de Gogorza, 
form two members of a quartet of Atwater Kent prize winners of past seasons who 
have been employed to broadcast the entire concert during the Atwater Kent Radio 
Hour. A third member of the quartet is Wilbur Evans, former Curtis student of 
voice. The first programme has already been broadcast, on April ii, and it is planned 
to have the quartet continue to give this regular Sunday evening concert for perhaps 
two months. 

Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, a student of Madame Sembrich, sang for the Union 
Settlement in New York City on April ii. . . . Edwina Eustis, Mez.ZP Soprano, a 
student in Operatic Acting of Mr. von Wymetal, Jr., gave a group of songs for the 
Crestwood Parent-Teachers' Association, in West Chester County, New York, on 
April 13. 

The Connell Quartet appeared in a forty-five minute programme for the Barnwell 
Foundation, on March 17, in the Ball Room of the Penn Athletic Club. On April 
17 they will again present a programme here, under the auspices of the Municipal 
Bureau of Music of Philadelphia. 

Campanology: On the Sundays of March and the first Sunday of April, Lawrence 
Apgar and Robert Cato, students of Organ and Campanology at the Institute, 
played six recitals on the Schneider carillon of Trinity Reformed Church, 
Philadelphia, in the absence of the regular carillonneur, Remy A. Miiller, who has 
been studying with Mr. Brees at Mountain Lake, Florida. On March ^9 Mr. Apgar 
gave the first performance in this city of a Prelude to a Suite, for Carillon, by Samuel 
Barber, a student of Mr. Scalero in Composition. On April 5 Mr. Cato played the 
first performance of a work written especially for this concert — Air in F, by Robert A. 
Kleinschmidt, of Philadelphia. 

Shortly before this, Robert Cato had returned from his second season of study 
with Mr. Brees in Florida. More recently, Samuel Barber, Gian-Carlo Menotti, and 
Nino Rota, students of composition under Mr. Scalero, have been studying with Mr. 
Brees with a view to composing works especially for the carillon. Remy Miiller 
was in Florida, a student of the bells, at approximately the same time. Very shortly 
Lawrence Apgar and Alexander McCurdy, Jr., will go to Mountain Lake to resume 
their study of the carillon with Mr. Brees, whose students in this second year of the 
Department's existence have been seven. 

Organ: Carl Weinrich, a graduate student of the Institute's Department of Organ, 
is playing four Bach programmes at the Church of the Holy Communion, New 
York City, on the Sundays and Mondays of April. These programmes are 
presenting in complete form Tbe Art of Fugue, among other works of Bach, and are 
being given as originally planned by the late Dr. Lynnwood Farnam, whose post 
Mr. Weinrich now fills in New York. 

Alexander McCurdy, Jr. played four recitals on the Saturdays of March at his 
Church in Philadelphia. On March 30 he conducted a performance of Mozart's 
Requiefn by the Trenton Choral Society, of which he is director. Theodore Saiden- 
berg assisted at the piano on this occasion. 

Robert Cato has recently completed a series of six Lenten recitals in Old Christ 
Church, Philadelphia, where he occupies the posts of organist and choirmaster. 

1202 1 


PIANO AND accompanying: William Harms, a student of Mr. Hofmann, gave a 
recital at Dartmouth College on April ii. 
Jeanne Behrend, a graduate student of Mr. Hofmann, participated in a con- 
cert for the benefit of physicians' widows, on March xo, at the Philadelphia County 
Medical Society. 

Sonia Hodge, a student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying, assisted Madame 
Marianne Gonitch, Soprano, in concerts in New York City on March i, 5, and 13. 
On March 16 she accompanied Madame Gonitch in a broadcast over Station WEAF, 
New York City. 

Violin: Philip Frank, a student of Mr. Zimbalist, will participate, with the 
Connell Quartet, in the programme being presented on April 17 in the Ball 
Room of the Penn Athletic Club by the Municipal Bureau of Music of Phila- 
delphia. The proceeds of this concert will be donated to the American Red Cross. 

Paul Gershman, a student of Mr. Zimbalist, will assist the A Cappella Choir of 
Philadelphia in its concert in Witherspoon Hall on April 2.1. 

Ethel Stark, a student of Madame Luboshutz, was soloist with the Toronto 
Symphony Orchestra on March zi. in a concert which was broadcast over the radio. 
On April 13 she played at Georgetown, Delaware. 

Harp: William Cameron, a student of Mr. Salzedo, was, on March 2.6, assisting 
soloist during a Glee Club concert at the Philadelphia Normal School, and, 
on April 7, soloist in a concert in the Auditorium of the Lansdowne High 
School. On April 5 he played for the morning service of St. Martin's Church in 
Radnor. On April 13 and 14 he will play in performances by the orchestra of the 
Camden High School. 

Victoria Murdock, also a student of Mr. Salzedo, will be soloist in a concert by 
the Allentown Chorus, on April 16. During the performance of Bizet's The Pearl 
Fishers by The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company on March i6, she provided the 
back stage harp solos. 

INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLES: Since March 9 a trio made up of Freda Pastor, Piano, 
Leona Wolson, Violin, and Katherine Conant, Violoncello, has been filling a per- 
manent engagement at Colton Manor, Atlantic City. 

A trio including William Cameron, Harp, Lily Matison, Violin, and Florence 
Williams, Violoncello, was engaged by the Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church to assist 
in its Palm Sunday afternoon service, on March 19. 

1203 1 

IS/lusk Calendar 

April 15-30 

1 6 — Students of Mr. Anton Torello in Double Bass, Casimir Hall, afternoon. 

i6 — Tannhduser, Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, Academy of Music, evening. 

End of season. 
17 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski, Conducting; Josef Hofmann, 

Piano Soloist; Academy of Music, afternoon. 
17 — Radio Broadcast — Curtis Sym-phony Orchestra, Louis Vyner, Conducting: Joseph Levine, 

Piano Soloist; Casimir Hall, afternoon. 
18 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski, Hofmann, evening. 
19- — Pennsylvania Museum of Art Concert — Faure's "Requiem" for Soli, Chorus, Organ, 

and Orchestra, by artist-students of The Curtis Institute, conducted by Dr. Louis Bailly, 

1.0 — Students of Mr. David Saperton in Piano, Casimir Hall, evening. 
XI — Benjamin Grobani, Baritone, Academy of Music Foyer, evening. 
Xi — Students of Madame Isabelle Vengerova in Piano, Casimir Hall, evening. 
X3 — Students of Mr. Felix Salmond in Violoncello, Casimir Hall, evening. 
X3 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski, Conducting, evening. 
X4 — Philadelphia Orchestra, Stokowski, afternoon. End of season. 
X4 — Radio Broadcast — Faure's "Requie?n," Casimir Hall, afternoon. Final broadcast of 

X5 — Choral Art Society, Academy of Music, evening. 
x6 — Richard Crooks, Tenor, Ball Room of the Penn Athletic Club, evening. 
X7 — Students of Mr. Emilio de Gogorza in Voice, Casimir Hall, evening. 
Tj — Choral Society in The Creation, Academy of Music, evening. 
x8 — Students of Mr .] osef Hofmann in Piano, Casitnir Hall, evening. 
X9 — Students of Miss Harriet van Fmden in Voice, Casimir Hall, evening. 
30 — Madame Isabelle Vengerova, Pianist, Madame Lea Luboshutz., Violinist, and Mr. 

Felix Salmond, Violoncellist, in Faculty Concert, Casimir Hall, Evening. 

May 1-10 

I — Students of Madame Marcella Sembrich (acting teacher: Miss Qjieena Mario) in Voice, 

Casimir Hall, evening. 
X — Fortnightly Club Concert, Academy of Music, evening. 
3 — Symphony Club Concert, Academy of Music, evening. 
4 — Students of Mr. Horatio Cotinell in Voice, Casimir Hall, evening. 
5 — Students of Mr. Marcel Tabuteau in Oboe, Casimir Hall, evening. 
II — Students of Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr. in Operatic Acting, in performances of scenes 

and selections from operas. Plays and Players Theater, evening. 
IX — Mr. Josef Hofmann, Pianist, Casimir Hall, evening. Last Faculty Recital of Season. 
13 — Students of Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr., Plays and Players Theater, evening. 

Second evening of operatic performances. 
14 — Students of Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr., Plays and Players Theater, evening. Third 

evening of operatic performances. 
18 — Students of Dr. Louis Bailly in Viola, Casitnir Hall, evening. 
19 — Students of Madame Isabelle Vengerova in Piano, Casimir Hall, evening. 
xo — Students of Mr. David Saperton in Piano, Casimir Hall, evening. 

I 204 I 



The Monthly Publication of The Curtis Institute of Music 




Philadelphia - Pennsylvania 

Vol. II— No. 8 May, 193 1 





Editorial Commenu 2.09 

Opera Regarded from Several Viewpoints Horatio Counell 2.1 1 

Concepts of Time, Measure, and Rhythm. . . .Placido de Mojitoliu Z15 

With Our Graduate Students: 

Henri Temianka in Europe 110 

Benjamin Grobani's Philadelphia Recital 111 

Student Activities: 

Casimir Hall Concerts Z2.3 

Opera 2.2.7 

Concert Course Recitals 119 

Chamber Music 2.3 1 

The Curtis Symphony Orchestra ^31 

Radio Broadcasts 2.33 

Other Events 2.34 

Faculty Activities 136 

Glimpses of the Institute: 

XI. Office of the Executive Secretary 2.39 

Index to Volume II 140 


Horatio Connell, lustnicto" in Voice 110 

Placido de Montoliu, Instmctov in Eurhythmies 114 

Interior of Casimir Hall izi 

Soloists, Chorus, and Orchestra Participating in Season's Final 
Pennsylvania Museum Chamber Music Concert by Curtis 

Students 2.30 

Office of the Executive Secretary 2.38 

Permission is granted to reproduce parts of this magazine provided due acknowledgment is made to Oitncnts 
Copyright 1931 by The Curtis Institute of Music. Printed in the United States of America 

Editorial Comment 

iTH the end of The Curtis Institute of Music's seventh season 
close at hand, one aspect of the past eight months which 
seems especially worthy of comment is the new high level 
achieved by students in the scope and frequency of their 
appearances before the public through the auspices of the Institute. 
Never before has there been such an abundance of opportunity for gain- 
ing practical experience in public concert appearances. The record 
for the season runs something like this: student participation in 
seventeen performances by The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company; 
six concerts by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra in addition to profes- 
sional engagements in conjunction with the Harrisburg Music Festival 
and in two special radio broadcasts in a regular symphonic series 
sponsored by The Columbia Broadcasting System; five chamber music 
concerts in the Pennsylvania Museum of Art; twenty radio broadcasts 
of programmes by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, chamber ensem- 
bles, and vocal and instrumental soloists; twenty-four concerts in a 
series presented to colleges, clubs, and cultural groups; and twenty- 
nine concerts in Casimir Hall to which the public was admitted. In 
addition to these events, there were a large number of informal after- 
noon students' recitals not open to the public and an abundance of 
appearances by individual students, either in concert or over the radio, 
arranged through the medium of the Institute. Bring this list of the 
season's musical events to a total with the inclusion of the ten Faculty 
recitals, each in its way a unique occasion, and one may be able to 
form some idea of the generous number of programmes, distributed 
over a fairly brief academic season of eight months, in which students 
may find a two-fold advantage .... the ready means of broaden- 
ing their knowledge of the best of musical literature, in other fields 
as well as their own, and the opportunity of performing themselves as 
freely as their state of progress warrants. 



Camera Portrait by Albert Petersen 

HORATIO CONNELL, Instructor in Voice 


opera Ke gar ded from Several Viewpoints 


|E HAVE the vocal, artistic, and financial standpoints from 
which to view opera. Too often the vocal and artistic 
realms are opposed or hindered bv the stressing of the fi- 
nancial side. In order to obtain the best results in opera, 
it must — like the symphony orchestra and other educational activities 
— become independent of financial cares. All those who are con- 
cerned with its production must not be hampered even by reasonable 
financial considerations. These must be cared for by the state, in- 
dividuals, or endowments. Lack of proper financial support means 
insufficient rehearsals, not the best available talent, poor stage scenery, 
an indifferent orchestra. 

However, apart from such considerations, one of the greatest handi- 
caps of all is our present svstem of enormous opera houses, with 
their sweeping horse-shoes of boxes and their wide open spaces — so 
arranged, presumablv, that the crowds therein may make possible the 
opera. Combine this disadvantageous circumstance with the almost 
unbelievably bad singing often projected over the opera footlights, 
and you have a very poor vocal performance, inartistic and unin- 

What is the cause of so much poor singing and so manv over-worn 
voices in the opera? The reasons for this are several : Impatience and 
the longing for a career on the part of those who possess good voices. 
The lack of desire or willingness to lay a solid foundation, which, 
by the way, requires years of faithful application to study. (Many 
do not wish to submit to such study, but they should be compelled 
to undergo it before entering upon a public career.) The exploiting 
of young, naturally fine voices, which too frequently are cast to sing 



operatic roles before their possessors can properly sing a simple ballad. 
What a crime this seems! 

The reasons enumerated above are bad enough, but a still greater 
reason for the bad operatic singing and the early ruining of fine voices 
is to be found in the conditions which prevail in the opera house itself. 
The opera house is too big. It is not humanly possible for a voice 
to endeavor, year after year, adequately to fill the great spaces of the 
present-day large opera house and at the same time be obliged to com- 
bat the force of an imposing orchestra placed directly before the singer 
and separating him from the space into which he wishes to project 
his voice. Inevitably this circumstance causes "forcing" the voice^ 
and this continual forcing robs the voice of its natural bloom, strains 
the vocal muscles, and causes off-pitch singing. As a natural result, 
the average singer is pretty well finished before he or she reaches the 
age of fifty. 

It would not be a difficult matter to name many former operatic 
stars who were dropped by the public and by the managers during 
their fullest years of ripe experience, when they were not yet fifty 
years old, because their voices had lost their quality, trueness to pitch, 
and general original musical characteristics. What a sad commentary 
upon the art of operatic singing! 

It is a well known fact that concert and oratorio singers retain 
their voices in good condition and sing well for many years past their 
half-century birthdays. Why? The answer is obvious. Through 
singing well and by not forcing their voices. 

It is a sad — not to say tragic — thing to see a finely schooled young 
singer come forth and sing with beautiful tone and artistry in a re- 
cital or oratorio performance, then sing in opera with equal vocal 
and artistic success, and then, within perhaps ten years of continued 
operatic singing, exhibit an indisputable deterioration. Too fre- 
quently, when one notes the same singer's work after such a period, 
there is noticeable a very considerable loss in tone quality and tone 
purity, and steadfastness to pitch has completely departed. 

As we perceive these things and believe that there is a remedy for 
them, it behooves us of this generation to put our operatic house in 



order, and thus save the day for the rising generation of singers. To 
help towards attaining this end, I suggest the following procedure: 

Compel pupils to study correctly and faithfully and allow them 
sufficient time in which to accomplish a thorough job. 

Build the opera houses smaller, so as to seat not more than perhaps 
two thousand persons. This is very important. The Prince Regent 
Theater in Munich is a fine example of an opera house embodying 
this principle. 

Give the greatest possible attention to the acoustical properties of 
the opera houses. Consider the minutest details: wood panelling 
and wooden seats, but no plush anywhere. Every consideration 
should be made for the singer, in order that he may produce his 
finest effects without forcing his voice or shouting. 

Arrange the orchestra under the stage as did Wagner in Bayreuth. 

We have in The Curtis Institute of Music a school for teaching and 
training the young singers, but the other part of the plan is for the 
future. May it be near at hand! May we here in Philadelphia set 
an example to the world in the form of a "singer's opera house" and 
a kind of opera performance which will compare favorably with the 
Golden Age of opera at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning 
of the nineteenth centuries! 



Camerj Portrait by Albert Petersen 

PLACIDO DE MONTOLIU, Instructor hi Eurhythmies 



Concepts of TimCj JSAeasurCj and Khythm 


^^™«^^HE MEAxixG of thcse three terms — time, measure, and rhvthm 
— as interpreted in current standardized musical pedagogy 
is a sort of conventional means to make music measurable. 
A certain allowance is accorded to rhythm which is con- 

sidered by some theorists as something different and independent from 
time and measure, a synonym of phrasing, or of emotional release, 
a manifestation of pure intellectual activity or of instinct. However, 
even rhythm is generally relegated, with time and measure, to the 
bookkeeping department of music. But when we confront the works 
of the great masters and their rendering by some of the virtuosi, we 
are surprised at the liberties taken with the metric structure of the 
works, we notice that the phrase often laughs at the measure, and we 
wonder whether or not the theories we learned are wrong or the com- 
posers and these virtuosi in error! We are then told that actuallv we 
have not been erroneously taught, but that it is a prerogative of genius 
to take what liberties one wants with established rules and to indulge 
in any personal and individual interpretation, whereas the modest 
musical middle-class should take no such liberties, but strictly obey 
the law. Oi course, this is not an explanation, not even an excuse. 
An art based upon principles which are disregarded by its highest 
representatives is not an art; it is nothing positive, vital, because it 
destroys itself. I am firmly convinced that the real virtuosi — I mean 
those who possess the musical virtues developed to the highest degree 
of perfection — are precisely those who have assimilated the laws of 
time, measure, and rhythm so completely that they can afford to play 
with them, to obey and command them because they, the artistic 
virtuosi, have become the laws themselves. The teachings we find 
in the music books are not wrong in the sense that they teach things 
which are not true, but they miss the essential point. Rhythm is 
not a thing we can learn, but a complex of conditions of body, feeling, 
and mind which we must acquire through experience. 



In the plastic arts our emotion derives from the contemplation of 
fixed forms, we can appreciate and enjov them at our leisure, being 
able to shift our attention from the whole to any particular detail. 
Plastic forms in sculpture and painting speak to us without the necessity 
of an interpreter. They are expressed by spatial proportions. The 
time in which it has taken the artist to complete them does not enter 
as a factor in our aesthetic perception of them. In music and the dance 
the perception is of a quite different nature. Its characteristic is pre- 
cisely the vital importance of the element of time, which is the es- 
sential factor. Not abstract time, but time divided into units of certain 
length, the proportions between which determine the form. Forms 
in music and the dance require an interpreter to re-create them in actual 
sound or bodily movement, because they exist only potentially in the 
score. It is impossible to contemplate them while shifting our at- 
tention to this or that part — we cannot contemplate them in their 
fullness at once. It is necessary to witness the repetition of the 
whole process of their creation reduced to proportions of time, within 
our limits of perception. The message of music and the dance is of a 
kind that dispenses with an intellectual explanation of its meaning, 
strikes immediately the feelings, and goes straight to the heart, be- 
cause the movements of the sounds and the movements of the body 
are a first-hand expression of the feelings. 

Time, rhythm! What fascinating subjects for metaphysical specu- 
lation! We handle them so freely in music and the dance, we split 
them in countless divisions, we group their units in unlimited com- 
binations, we play familiarly with them, they are constantly in us, 
around us, and we cannot tell what their essence is. We cannot con- 
ceive time but in fragments or units of different lengths, and these 
units cannot be determined unless we fix certain points of time in our 
minds, and to fix these points we have to pass through them. Time 
is — (and I do not pretend to give a definition of it) — like the wake 
left behind by our consciousness as it passes from one point to another. 

Movement and the consciousness of it are then inherent in the human 
conception of time and space, which is identical with the idea of 
movement. Just as we measure the span of our life and all its epi- 
sodes by our consciousness of them, we measure also these short mo- 
ments of exalted life through which we pass when we create, perform, 



or hear a musical work. The musical measure then is not a con- 
ventional device to make music measurable. This measurement is 
the inevitable consequence of our consciousness of time and movement. 
In the measure we feel the pulsation that preserves the continuity of 
life in all its forms. Measure is not only the interval of time between 
one bar and the next; a beat, any fraction of a beat, is a smaller meas- 
ure, while sentences, phrases, and periods, and all the larger forms 
are larger measures. Measure not only furnishes the animated frame 
for all forms but keeps them moving, continuously, determining their 
proportions. The sense for time proportions is the very essence of 

To obey the law of rhythmic impulse as expressed by the measure 
does not interfere with the proper punctuation, nor with the expressive 
and dynamic accentuation. The initial accent which we put on the 
first of a sense-making group of notes, anacrousic or thetic, and the 
rhythmic impulse on the first beat of the measure, have an entirely 
different meaning. The first is the result of a contrast produced by 
the rest that precedes it. From the motor-rhythmic standpoint, and 
independently of any kind of harmonic cadence and modulation, the 
punctuation depends on the diminution of intensity and duration 
of the final note in the preceding group, which is necessary to prepare 
the new attack. The function of the initial impulse on the first beat 
of the measure is not to mark the beginning of a word, a sentence, or 
a phrase, but to insure, by its periodical recurrence, the energy neces- 
sary to the completion of the form, and to determine the proportions 
of time and intensity of its components . Even when the first beat of the 
measure is silent, we must inwardly feel and realize the rhythmic 
impulse on it if we do not want to break the flow of the musical 
thought and emotion. 

The measure is not a tyrannical rule which we must blindly obey. 
We need not rebel against it in order to be free in our expression. 
It is thanks to the measure that we can build the musical words, sen- 
tences, and phrases. Measure is the animated frame of the musical 
form. Only through our consciousness of tempo and measure can 
we feel and appreciate the effect brought on our emotions by all the 
irregularities deriving from the rubatos, accelerandos, ritardandos, 
suspensions, unexpected expressive accents, and all subtleties of 



meaning. Any alteration in the metrical structure, be it in the num- 
ber of the measure's beats, or in the grouping of measures, affects the 
harmonic structure. And in certain cases — as for instance, taking 
a waltz in the movement of a funeral march, or vice versa — where 
the harmonic and melodic structure can be kept unchanged, even then 
the mere change from 3/4 to 2-/4, or the opposite, suffices to give the 
music an entirely different mood and expression. The measure, 
whether keeping the same meter or alternating different meters, lends 
itself willingly to all the capriciousness of phrasing. Take for in- 
stance certain rhythmic motives of the anacrousic type, and, as you link 
them in succession, shorten or lengthen the anacrousic or thetic part; 
if the motives are carefully prepared, the result will be charming and 
unusual alternations of different meters. It is only when we ignore 
the significance of measure, when our measure-feelings and images are 
blurred and fail to master it, that we blindly become its slaves. 

But measure means something still more vital. Whatever the 
number of beats, a measure is in itself a complete form, expressing the 
creative impulse, its continuity, exhaustion, and resolution into the 
next impulse, thus giving a vivid example of the eternal orderly mani- 
festation of things. We express in the measure the crescendo and di- 
minuendo of our own vitality. 

Thus conceived, the succession of measures becomes a cantus firmus 
of rhythmic pulsations that flows from beginning to end of the musi- 
cal work. And we can consider even a single unharmonized tune as 
an example of two-part rhythmic counterpoint. 

This pulsation organized into measures, sentences, phrases, and the 
other larger forms is the impelling force that generates the movements 
of the sounds when the composer creates the work in his imagination 
and when the performer executes it. Rhythm cannot be conceived 
unless something moves continuously, and things can move con- 
tinuously only when impelled and governed by rhythm. Thus, both 
concepts — rhythm and movement — are inseparable. 

The matter of priority of one or the other would lead only to a hair- 
splitting metaphysical discussion. But it is interesting to point 
out that our present conception of rhythm, as the unification of pulse 
and measure, like the unification of the scale and the major and minor 
modes, is the product of a long intellectual evolution. In spite of 



this systematization, the principle remains the same, as well as the 
primordial urge that compels us to move under the stimulus of rhythm, 
that makes us feel the need of rhythm to insure the continuity of 
movement, of life, to give organized expression to our emotions in 
the forms of Dance, Music, and Poetry. 

The human concept of rhythm is the sum total of our experiences 
in movement, time, and measure — all four being inseparable. We 
cannot define rhythm in its essence, w^e know it only as a phenomenon, 
as an emotional and motor reaction. As the dance is an offspring of 
rhythm, so is harmony, for it does not consist only in the superposition 
of sound that produces a certain effect, but in the orderly and logical 
progression of each sound from one harmonic body to another. 
Rhythm takes care of this progression on which depend the places of 
the sounds in the harmonic body or chord. 

The priority of rhythm over melody and harmony is undeniable, it 
is made still evident in the song-dances of certain savage tribes in 
Africa and the South Pacific, which cannot yet be termed music, but 
only rhythmic-motor- vocal utterance. Age old evolution has made 
it possible for man to conceive music which seems to elude rhythm, 
floating in the air like clouds incessantly changing their shape. But 
we must not be deceived by appearances, even this seemingly formless 
music is strongly supported by the frame of measure. 

It is natural and logical, then, to conclude that our first musical 
experience must be the spontaneous response of our feelings to the 
stimulus of rhythm, by the medium of bodily motion. This response 
becomes orderly through the intervention of the mind which or- 
ganizes the rhythmic material and explains the correlation of cause 
and effect in rhythmic expression. These first experiences should 
be free from melodic and harmonic implications in order to allow 
the sense of hearing and the sense of movement to concentrate on 
the essentials of rhythmic expression: coordination of movements 
in time and space, control over balance, control over tension and 

As has been said already, rhythm is not something we can learn 
through standardized methods, we have to acquire and assimilate it 
through individual experiences involving the activity of our mental 
and physical powers as well as our phantasy and emotions. 


With Our Graduate Students 


jiHE YOUNG Polish violioist, Henri Temianka, one of the first 
graduates of The Curtis Institute, heard in this country in 
brilliant performances during the past two years and hailed 
as a "real discovery" of recent seasons, has been electrifying 
European audiences in Norway, Sweden, Holland, Belgium, Austria, 
Germany, and Spain during this past winter. The unanimous critical 
verdict is that this young virtuoso sweeps everything before him with 
his skillful playing. Below are some of his notices, extraordinary 
tributes rarely won by any artist. 

OSLO AFTENPOSTEN: "Tcmianka is assuredly one of the chosen few." 
OSLO MORGENBLADET: "He now stands absolutely in the front row of great 

OSLO NATIONEN: "The audience went wild, and no wonder." 
ANTWERP MATIN: "His tone is of crystalline purity and he plays with exquisite 
musicianship. He is, briefly, a staggering virtuoso." 

ROTTERDAM MAASBODE.- "Temianka is one of the beloved figures of our concert 
halls, a musician of rare gifts in the expression of his art." 

THE HAGUE RESIDENTIEBODE: "His playing of Ravel's Tzigane was colossal." 
VIENNA NEUIGKEITS IVELTBLATT: "Then came the sensation of the evening, 
Temianka, playing the Lalo Spanish Symphony with extraordinary power, 
expression, and tone, and absolutely finished technique; each movement was a 
masterpiece. The success grew to storms of applause such as only the greatest 
virtuosos can call forth." 

STOCKHOLM DAGBLADET: "He gives his best and innermost with all the 
glowing enthusiasm of youth. His technique is flawless, his interpretation master- 
ful! We are eagerly awaiting the return of this extraordinary and brilliant violin 

BARCELCNA LA VANGUARDIA: "At the concert of the Philharmonic Society 
Henri Temianka easily proved why he is held in such high regard elsewhere 
in Europe. His mastery is complete and his interpretations are in the loftiest 

EARL FOX, student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying, who served as 
official accompanist for Mr. Temianka during his European tour, 
also received notices of unusually high praise and commendation. 

THE HAGUE COURANT: "Earl Fox was not only a remarkable accompanist, but 
proved to be a sensitive artist besides, in the Sonata of Mozart, and one who does 
not lack virtuosity either — as in the T^/gane of Ravel." 

OSLO TIDENS TEGN.- "Throughout the entire programme Temianka had a most 
excellent collaborator in Earl Fox, a remarkable pianist, who understands the 



secret of the art of accompanying, consisting in the seeming contradiction of being 
at the same time solid, pliable, individual and independent." 

ANTWERP LA COMEDIE: "We also wish to mention Mr. Earl Fox, the in- 
telligent and devoted collaborator of the violinist, whose playing showed excellent 
taste and talent." 


THE Philadelphia debut, in recital, of Benjamin Grobani, Baritone, 
graduate student of The Curtis Institute (where his teacher was 
Mr. de Gogorza) and member of The Philadelphia Grand Opera Com- 
pany, took place in the Academy of Music Foyer on Tuesday evening, 
April 2.1. Mr. Grobani's programme was long and varied, including 
songs in no less than six languages. The five groups included in- 
teresting works by Peri, Lully, and Gluck; Brahms, Wolf, Pfitzner, 
and Grieg; Faure, Chausson, Joseph Szulc, and Ravel; Cyril Scott and 
Roger Quilter; and Moussorgsky, Dargomyschsky, and de Falla. 
His notices in the Philadelphia press of April zl were uniformly 
approbatory and enthusiastic. 

PUBLIC LEDGER: "Grobani gave a recital before a more than capacity audience 
which received him with salvos of applause after each number. He showed a voice 
of exceptional power . . and sang with admirable intonation and artistry." 

INQUIRER: "The richly resonant voice of the singer was amply able to cope 
with an ambitious programme. Mr. Grobani not only delighted his hearers by a 
display of his vocal powers in many familiar songs, but he also introduced three new 
numbers not previously heard here." 

BULLETIN: "The baritone's voice is voluminous and of fine resonance, and he 
sings with excellent musicianship. He has the dramatic instinct and knows how to 
put fervor into his work and to sing with the fullness and firmness of tone that dis- 
tinguishes the true baritone. Good phrasing and distinctness of enunciation are to 
be noted." 

RECORD: "Mr. Grobani's voice possesses a wealth of natural richness and 
beauty which he uses to great advantage. His tones are full and round and his voice 
never loses its emotional depth and sonorous quality." 

DAILY NEWS: "Grobani has a powerful dramatic tone. There was no forcing 
of notes or lack of melody. He sang Russian songs with the same fluency with which 
he interpreted lieder songs. He was heard in Italian arias with the same acclaim 
that marked his singing of the popular Melodic Hebraique of Ravel." 

His accompanist in this recital was Theodore Saidenberg, graduate 
student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying, who has served as accom- 
panist for Efram Zimbalist and Erika Moiini in their recent concert 
appearances in this country. Mr. Saidenberg's playing was also 
highly praised in all the reviews of the Grobani recital. 










Student Activities 





o LESS than sixteen students' concerts have occurred since the 
last account of this series in our April issue, bringing the 
total number of these concerts to one of twenty-nine. The 
adoption this year of the practice of having informal after- 
noon recitals to supplement the more formal evening recitals explains 
in part the lower figure of twenty-nine Students' Concerts as compared 
with last season's total of thirty-seven. Limitations of space have 
prevented the mention, in every instance, of the names of all works 
presented, but the following resumes will be found to be fairly 
complete : 

Mr. Torello's students in Double Bass participated in the Fourteenth Concert on 
the afternoon of April i6, with the programme as follows: Johann Galliard's Sonata 
in A major, played by Irven Whitenack; Emile Ratez's Parade and Arabesque, played 
by Frank Eney; Lorenzitti's Gavotte and Caix d'Hervelois's Le Papillon, played by 
Irven Whitenack; Jean d'Andrieu's Sonata in G fnajor and Emile Ratez's Theme, 
Variations et Fugue, played by Oscar Zimmerman; and, in conclusion, a first per- 
formance of Isaia Bille's DanXa Satanica and the playing of C. Franchi's Introduction 
et Tarentelle by Jack Posell. The accompanist for these works was Ralph Berkowitz, 
student of Mr. Kaufman. 

The Fifteenth Concert took place on the evening of April ^.'L, when students of 
Madame \^engerova, in Piano, were heard. Sol Kaplan played the Prelude from 
Bach's English Suite in A minor and the first movement from Beethoven's Concerto in 
C major. Opus 15. In the latter work the orchestral part was played on a second piano 
by Florence Frantz. Zadel Skolovsky followed with Mendelssohn's Variations 
serieuses. Opus 54, and Chopin's Etude in C sharp minor. Opus 10, No. 4. A group 
played by Louise Leschin consisted of the Bach-Tausig Toccata and Eugue in D minor, 
Chopin's Nocturne in D flat major. Opus 2.7, No. t, and the Paganini-Liszt Etude in E 
major. No. 5. The two works performed by Eugene Helmer were Chopin's Noc^^rw^ 
in E sharp minor. Opus 48, No. i, and Liapounoff's Eesghinka (Caucasian Dance). 
The programme was concluded with the playing of Rachmaninoff's Suite for Tivo 
Pianos, Opus 17, by Louise and Joana Leschin. 

Students of Mr. Salmond, in Violoncello, presented the Sixteenth Concert on the 
afternoon of April x}. Boccherini's Adagio and Allegro and Boellman's Variations 
Symphoniques, Opus i3, were played by Orlando Cole; Helen Gilbert was heard in 
Handel's Sonata in G minor. No. i, and the first movement from the Concerto in D 
minor, by Lalo; then followed two movements from the Concerto in B flat major by 
Boccherini, played by Katherine Conant, and, lastly, two movements from the Con- 

1223 1 


certo in D major, No. i, played by Frank Miller. Joseph RubanofF, student of Mr. 
Kaufman in Accompanying, was at the piano in the works played by Helen Gilbert, 
and Florence Frantz, student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying, assisted in the 
performance of the remainder of the programme. 

A long and varied programme made up the Seventeenth Concert, by students of 
Mr. Saperton, in Piano, on the evening of April 14: Bach's Organ Fantasy and Fugue 
in G minor in the Liszt adaptation, played by Jorge Bolet; Mendelssohn's Variations 
serieuses, played by Florence Fraser; Albeniz's El Puerto and El Albaicin, played by 
Rosita Escalona; Liszt's Waldesrauschen and Fantasia quasi Sonata: "Apres une Lec- 
ture du Dante," plaved by Jorge Bolet; Debussy's Feux d' Artifice and Ravel's Toccata, 
played by Jean-Marie Robinault; the first movement from Saint-Saens' Concerto in 
G minor. Opus ii, played by Lilian Batkin (with the orchestral part plaved on a 
second piano by Irene Peckham); the first movement from Rubinstein's Concerto in 
D minor. Opus 70, played by Jeanette Weinstein (with the orchestral part plaved on a 
second piano by "Theodore Saidenberg); the first movement from Rachmaninoff's 
Concerto in C minor. Opus 18, played by Irene Peckham (with the orchestral part played 
on a second piano by Jorge Bolet); and, as a concluding work, the Liszt-Busoni 
Rhapsodic Espangole, played by Jean-Marie Robinault (with the orchestral part played 
on a second piano by Jorge Bolet). 

The Eighteenth Programme, on the evening of April 17, was devoted to students 
of Mr. de Gogorza, in Voice. Abrasha Robofsky, Baritone, sang two songs bv Gluck 
and Schumann, Agnes Davis, Soprano, arias by \xrdi and Puccini, with an Old English 
song arranged bv Lane Wilson, and Edw^ard Kane, Tenor, two songs bv Donizetti and 
Daniel Wolf. Benjamin de Loache, Baritone, was heard in songs bv Handel, Scarlatti, 
and Hugo Wolf, together with a Negro Spiritual. The concluding work presented 
Agnes Davis and Abrasha Robofsky in the duet, Ciel! mio padre! from Verdi's Aida. 
Conrad Thibault, Baritone, and Fiorenzo Tasso, Tenor, were indisposed and did not sing. 
Elizabeth Westmoreland, a student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying, assisted Ben- 
jamin de Loache at the Piano; Miss Winslow was accompanist for the remainder 
of the programme. 

On the following evening, April 18, students of Mr. Hofmann, in Piano, partici- 
pated in the Nineteenth Concert. Joseph Levine played the Bach-Busoni Cbaconne 
in D 77iinor and the first movement from Tschaikow^sky's Concerto in B fiat minor. 
Martha Halbwachs played Liszt's Funerailles, Brahms' Capriccio in G minor. Opus 
116, No. 3 , and Dohnanyi's Capriccio in F minor. The group played by William Harms 
consisted of the Bach-Tausig Toccata and Fugue in D minor, Chopin's Nocturne in F 
major. Opus 15, No. i, Debussy's Minstrels, and Mendelssohn's Variations serieuses. 
Opus 54. The concluding work was Liapounoff's Concerto in E fiat minor, played by 
Nadia Reisenberg. In the Tschaikowsky and Liapounoff concertos, Mr. Harrv 
Kaufman played the orchestral parts on a second piano. 

Students of Madame Sembrich, in Voice, presented the Twentieth Concert, on the 
evening of May i. In the absence of Madame Sembrich because of illness, these 
students were prepared bv Madame Queena Mario. Svlvan Levin was at the Piano. 



Ruth Gordon, Contralto, opened the programme with a group of songs by Benedetto 
Marcello, Hugo Wolf, Franz von Woyna, Gretchaninoff, and Ponchielli. Henriette 
Horle, Soprano, continued with songs by Mozart, Richard Strauss, Joseph Szulc, 
Harriet Ware, and Donizetti (assisted in this last work by Ardelle Hookins, Flautist^. 
Vera ResnikofF, Soprano, was heard in an all-Russian group of works bv Rimsky- 
Korsakoff, Dargomyschsky, Rachmaninoff, Gretchaninoff, and Gliere. Following 
this. Miss Horle and Miss Gordon collaborated in a recitative and duet for soprano 
and contralto: Questo duol che si vajfanno from von Flotow's Martha. Natalie 
Bodanskaya, Soprano, continued with songs by Mozart, Brahms, Donizetti, John 
Carpenter, and Richard Hageman. Genia Wilkomirska, Dratnatk Soprano, con- 
tributed a group of works by Bizet, Schubert, Tschaikowsky, Jean Kiirsteiner, and 
Giordano. The programme was brought to an end by Mildred Cable, Dramatic 
Soprano, singing compositions by Mozart, Samuel Alman, Joseph Achron, Mahler, 
and Verdi. 

The evening of May 4 marked the Twenty-first Concert, by students of Mr. 
Connell, in Voice. Alfred De Long, Bass-Baritone, opened the programme with 
songs by Handel and Gounod and an Old English song arranged by Lane Wilson. 
Eugene Ramey, Tenor, sang works by Bizet, Brahms, and Chausson. (In the last 
of these, he was assisted at the Organ by Donald Wilcox, a student of the late Dr. 
Farnam.) Walter Vassar, Baritone, followed with songs by Richard Strauss, Arthur 
Sullivan, and Massenet. A group presented by Albert Mahler, Tenor, included com- 
positions by Mozart, Brahms, and Wagner. Florence Irons, Soprano, continued 
with songs by Mozart, Richard Hageman, and Wagner. Daniel Healy, Tenor, was 
heard in a group of five Old Irish songs. Rose Bampton, Contralto, followed 
with works by Tschaikowsky, Edith Braun (dedicated to Mary Louise Curtis Bok), 
and Brahms. The concluding work of the programme was Brahms' AltoKhapsodie, 
sung by Rose Bampton, Contralto, assisted by Albert Mahler and Eugene Ramey, 
Tenors, and Alfred De Long and Walter Vassar, Basses. Accompaniments for the 
programme were provided by Elizabeth Westmoreland and Sylvan Levin. 

Students of Mr. Tabuteau, in Wind Ensemble, participated in the Twentv-second 
Concert on the evening of May 5.. Charles Gounod's Petite Symphonie was plaved by 
Kenton Terrv and John Hreachmack, Flutes; Sidney Divinsky and Isadore Goldblum, 
O^oej-; Robert Hartman and Emil Schmachtenberg, Clarinets; William Santucci and 
Andrew Luck, Bassoons; and Attillio de Palma, Henry Whitehead, Harry Berv, and 
Sune Johnson, French Horns. The second movement from the Trio in C major. Opus 
87, by Beethoven, was performed by Isadore Goldblum and Arno Mariotti, Oboes, 
and Robert Hester, English Horn. This was followed by Vincent d'Indy's Chanson 
et Danses, Opus 50, played by Ardelle Hookins, Flute; Isadore Goldblum, Oboe; 
James Collis and Leon Lester, Clarinets; William Sanctucci and Andrew Luck, Bas- 
soons; and Theodore Seder, French Horn. The first and second movements from 
Handel's Sonata, No. i, were performed by Harold Gomberg, Oboe, and Harlow Mills, 
Piano. The concluding work was Richard Strauss' Serenade in E flat major. Opus 7, 
played by Emil Opava and Kenton Terry, Flutes; Isadore Goldblum and Sidney 
Divinsky, Oboes; James Collis and Robert Hartman, Clarinets; Felix Meyer, Bass 
Clarinet; William Santucci and Andrew Luck, Bassoons; and Theodore Seder, Sune 
Johnson, Harry Berv, and Atillio de Palma, French Horns. 



The Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth Concerts were given over 
to Three Evenings of Opera, presented in the Plays and Players Theater, the details of 
which are to be found below under the heading of Opera, on page 117. 

Twenty-sixth in this series of Students' Concerts was the concert given by 
students of Miss van Emden, in Voice, on the evening of May 15. Selma Amansky, 
Soprano, sang Ildebrando Pizzetti's Tre canxpni, assisted by The Casimir Quartet. In 
addition, she presented an aria by Verdi and songs by Brahms, Gustavo Morales, 
and Alexandre Georges. Kathryn Dean, Contralto, was next heard in a group of 
works by Schubert, Richard Hageman, Powell Weaver, and Hermann Bemberg. 
Irene Singer, Soprano, was indisposed and did not sing the group announced. In 
her stead, Ira Petina, Soprano, sang works by Rachmaninoff' and an XVIII cen- 
tury song arranged by Weckerlin. Paceli Diamond, Soprano, continued with the 
singing of works by Rachmaninoff, Wagner, Becker, and von Weber. The pro- 
gramme was concluded with a scene from Mascagni's Cavalleria Kusticana, sung by 
Paceli Diamond, Soprano, Ira Petina, Soprano, and Albert Mahler, Tenor (a student of 
Mr. Connell). At the Piano was Joseph Rubanoff, a student of Mr. Kaufman in 

Students of Mr. Bailly, in Viola, were heard in the Twenty-seventh Concert, on 
the evening of May 18. Max AronofF played Tommaso Vitali's Chaconne and 
Johannes Brahms' Sonata in F minor. Opus no. No. i. Leon Frengut was heard in 
Jeno Hubay's Concerto, Opus lo (in one movement). Mozart's Concerto, Opus 107, 
was played by Leonard Mogill. In this work the cadenza for the last movement 
(Kondo^ was one composed by Rosario Scalero. At the Piano in this concert was 
Florence Frantz, a student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying. 

The Twenty-eighth Concert, on the evening of May 19, was devoted to students 
of Madame Vengerova, in Piano. The opening number was Bach's Italian Concerto, 
played by Selma Frank. The Bach-Liszt Prelude and Fugue in A minor and Mous- 
sorgsky's Pictures at an Exposition (in part) were played by Sonia Hodge. Joana 
Leschin continued the programme with Debussy's Reflets dans I'eau, Rachmaninoff's 
Moment musical in E Hat minor, and Stravinsky's Etude in F sharp major. Opus 7, No. 4. 
Cecile Geschichter was heard in Chopin's Berceuse, Valse in D flat major. Opus 64, No. i, 
and Coficerto in E minor. Opus 11 (first movement only). In the last work, Florence 
Frantz played the orchestral part at a second piano. The second and third move- 
ments from the Concerto in E minor were played by Bella Braverman, with Yvonne 
Krinsky performing the orchestral part at a second piano. 

The Twenty-ninth (and last) Students' Concert occurred on the evening of May 
xo, when a programme was played by students of Madame Luboshutz and Miss 
Poska, in Violin. Laura Griffing opened the programme with Tommaso Vitali's 
Ciaccona and later played Saint-Saens' Havanaise and the Dinicu-Heifetz Flora Staccato. 
Eva Stark was heard in the first movement from the Concerto in A minor. Opus ^8, by 
Goldmark. Mozart's Sonata, No. 6, in G major and the first movement from the 
Concerto in G major. Opus 76, by De Beriot, were performed by Eugene Orloff. The 
programme ended with Ethel Stark's playing of the Lalo Symphonie espagnole. In 
the Mozart sonata, Eugene OrlofF was assisted at the piano by Sol Kaplan, a student 
of Madame Vengerova; in the remainder of the programme, the accompanist was 
Eugene Helmer, a student of Mr. Kaufman in Accompanying. 




THE PHILADELPHIA Grand opera Company, affiliated with The 
Curtis Institute of Music, presented Richard Wagner's Tannhduser 
on Thursday evening, April i6, as the eighteenth and last performance 
of its fifth and most ambitious season. Guest artists participating in 
this opera included the well-known figures of Ivan Steschenko, Bruno 
Korell, John Charles Thomas, Marianne Gonitch, and Cyrena van 
Gordon. As usual, artist-students of the Voice Department of The 
Curtis Institute assisted the principals, appearing in the cast as follows : 

Walther von der Vogelweide Albert Mahler, Tenor 

Biterolf Abrasha Robofsky, Baritone 

Heinrich der Schreiber Conrad Thibault, Baritone 

A Young Shepherd Florence Irons, Soprano 

[Helen Jepson, Soprano 
Four Noble Pages j Selma Amansky, Soprano 

I Agnes Davis, Soprano 
[Ruth Gordon, MexXP Soprano 

The Conductor was Eugene Goossens and the Stage Director, Wilhelm 
von Wymetal, Jr. , of the faculty of the Institute. 

Announcement has been made that during the forthcoming season 
of 1931-1932. a series of twenty performances will be presented under 
the auspices of the Philadelphia Grand Opera Association. Leopold 
Stokowski, Fritz Reiner, and Eugene Goossens will be the conductors 
for the season. Wilhelm von Wymetal, Jr., will again stage the 
company's productions. Wozx.^ck, the sensational modern opera by 
Alban Berg, which was given its American premiere by the Phila- 
delphia Grand Opera Company on March 19th, will be presented 
early in the season, under the conductorship of Mr. Stokowski. 


AN INNOVATION of much interest this season was the series of three 
Students' Concerts by students of Mr. Wilhelm von Wymetal, 
Jr., in Operatic Acting, given in the theater of Plays and Players. The 
programmes presented complete acts and fragments from scenes of 
several of the operas studied this year under Mr. von Wymetal, and 
these scenes were performed with settings, lights, costumes, orchestral 



accompaniment, and so forth. The Stage Director was Mr. von Wy- 
metal, while the Musical Director and Conductor was Sylvan Levin, 
student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting and Assistant Conductor of 
The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company. The accompaniments were 
provided by Mr. Levin, both at the Piano and with the assistance of 
an orchestra of thirty members selected from The Curtis Symphony 

The First Programme (the Twenty-third Students' Concert) was presented on 
the evening of May ii, in four sections. Act Three of Puccini's Madame Butterfly was 
sung, to a piano accompaniment, by the following cast: Cho-Cho-San, Agnes Davis; 
Su-zjiki, Ruth Gordon; Y^ate Pinkerton, Carol Deis; B. F. Pitikerton, Albert Mahler; and 
Sharpless, Benjamin De Loache. 

Act Three of Verdi's Aida followed, sung, with orchestral accompaniment, by 
the following singers: Aida, Genia Wilkomirska; Amfier/s, Rose Bampton; Radames, 
Fiorenzo Tasso; Amonasro, Benjamin Grobani; and Ramjis, Alfred De Long. 

Next was heard a fragment from Act Two of Richard Wagner's Lohengrin, with 
the following students singing to an accompaniment at the piano: Elsa of Brabant, 
Marie Edel; Ortud, Edwina Eustis; and Telramtmd, Abrasha Robofsky. 

The evening was concluded with the performance of Act Two from Friedrich von 
Flotow's Martha, sung, with orchestral accompaniment, by this cast: Lady Harriet 
Durham, Helen Jepson; Naficy, Rose Bampton; Lionel, Albert Mahler; Plunkett, Alfred 
De Long; and Lord Tristan, Benjamin De Loache. 

The Second Programme (the Twenty-fourth Students' Concert) was presented 
on the evening of May 13, in five groups. First was heard a fragment from Act 
Three of Richard Wagner's Lohengrin, sung, with orchestral accompaniment, by the 
following students: Elsa of Brabant, Mildred Cable; Lohengrin, Albert Mahler. 

A fragment from Act One of Leoncavallo's Pagliacci followed. Mr. Levin was 
at the piano in this work, accompanying the following cast: Canio, Fiorenzo Tasso; 
Nedda, Marie Buddy; Tomo, Abrasha Robofsky; Silvio, Walter Vassar; and Beppe, 
Albert Mahler. 

Next came a fragment from Act One of Verdi's Aida, an aria for Aida, sung, to 
a piano accompaniment, by Elsa Meiskey. This was followed by a fragment from 
Act Two of the same opera, with these singers: Aida, Marie Edel; Amneris, Rose 

The programme was concluded with the performance of Act One from Mozart's 
Le Nozz^ di Figaro, with the orchestra under Mr. Levin, and with the singers as fol- 
lows: Count Almaviva, Abrasha Robofsky; Susanna, Natalie Bodanskaya; Cherubino, 
Inez Gorman; Marcellina, Paceli Diamond; Bartolo, Alfred De Long; and Basilio, 
Eugene Ramey. 

The Third Programme (the Twenty-fifth Students' Concert) was presented on 
the evening of May 14, again in five sections. First was heard Act Two from Gou- 
nod's Faust, accompanied by the orchestra under Mr. Levin's direction, and with 



this cast of singers: Marguerite, Selma Amansky; Martha, Edwina Eustis; Faust, 
Eugene Ramey; Mephistopheles, Alfred De Long; and Siehel, Ira Petina. 

This was followed by the singing of a fragment from Mascagni's Cavalleria 
Kusticana, with piano accompaniment: Santuzx.<^, Florence Irons; Lucia, Kathryn 
Dean; Lola, Ira Petina; and Turiddu, Fiorenzo Tasso. 

Once more Gounod's Faust provided a selection, when Act Three, Scene One, 
was sung, with orchestral accompaniment, by Marguerite, Henriette Horle; Mephisto- 
pheles, Alfred De Long. 

The fourth section of the programme consisted of a fragment from Act One of 
Bizet's Carmen, sung with piano accompaniment: Carmen, Genia Wilkomirska; 
Don Jose, Eugene Ramsey. 

The singing of a fragment from Act Two of Smetana's The Bartered Bride brought 
this programme, and the whole series, to a close. The orchestra provided the 
accompaniment for these singers: Marie, Marie Edel; IVen^el, Albert Mahler. 


THE coxcLUDiNG Tccitals havc been given in a scries of some twentv- 
four concerts presented before schools, colleges, clubs, and similar 
groups by artist-students of The Curtis Institute of Music. The 
following are the details of appearances and those participating: 

April 1 6 — University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, under the auspices of the 
Newark Music Society: Jorge Bolet, Pianist, student of Mr. Saperton; Henriette 
Horle, Soprano, student of Madame Sembrich; Ladislaus Steinhardt, Violinist, student 
of Mr. Bachmann; and Yvonne Krinskv, Accompanist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 

April 17 — The Salon Music Club, Lambertville, New Jersey: Celia Gomberg, 
Violinst, student of Madame Luboshutz; Alfred De Long, Bass-baritone, student ot 
Mr. Connell; Selma Amansky, Soprano, student of Miss van Emden; and Sarah Lewis, 
Accompanist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 

April i4 — Westtown School, Westtown, Pennsylvania: Martha Halbwachs, 
Pianist, student of Mr. Hofmann; Florence Irons, Soprano, student of Mr. Connell; 
Frances Wiener, Violinst, student of Mr. Bachmann; and Ralph Berkowitz, Accom- 
panist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 

April 2.8 — Marywood College, Scranton, Pennsylvania: The String Quartet, 
whose members are Lily Matison and Frances Wiener, Violins, Virginia Majewski, 
Viola, and Brunetta Peterson, Violoncello, students of Dr. Louis Bailly in Chamber 
Music; Albert Mahler, Tenor, student of Mr. Horatio Connell; and Ralph Berkowitz, 
Accompanist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 

May I — Cape May County Art League, Cape May Court House, New Jersey: 
Ethel Stark, Violinist, student of Madame Luboshutz; Walter \^assar, Bantone, student 
of Mr. Connell; Florence Irons, Soprano, student of Miss van Emden; and Eugene 
Helmer, Accompanist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 

May I — Haddon Fortnightly Club, Haddonfield, New Jersey: Alice Chalifoux, 
Harpist, student of Mr. Salzedo; Elsa Meiskey, Soprano, student of Mr. Connell; 
Paul Gershman, Violinist, student of Mr. Zimbalist; and Florence Frantz, 
Accompanist, student of Mr. Kaufman. 






A RECORD audience of not quite four thousand persons was present 
in the Pennsylvania Museum of Art at Fairmount on the evening 
of April 19 to hear the fifth and last concert in this third season of 
Chamber Music Concerts by artist-students of The Curtis Institute of 
Music. These concerts, presented by the Pennsylvania Museum of 
Art, are tendered by The Curtis Institute of Music and are under the 
artistic direction of Dr. Louis Bailly, Head of the Department of 
Chamber Music. A special feature of this last programme was the 
participation of a chorus of forty students from the Vocal Department 
and an orchestra of sixty-four members from The Curtis Symphony 
Orchestra. The programme, as previously announced, offered the 
following works: Johann Sebastian Bach's Sixth Brandenburg Con- 
certo, in B flat major (Organ obbligato by F. A. Gevaert) for Violas 
with accompaniment of Violoncelli and Double Basses. Leon Frengut 
and Max Aronoff played the Viola Solos, Robert Cato was at the 
Organ, and the work was conducted by Louis Vyner, a student of Mr. 
Mlynarski in Conducting. This was followed by a performance of 
Jean Sibelius' Canzpnetta , Opus 62.a, for String Orchestra, also con- 
ducted by Louis Vyner. The concluding work was Gabriel Faure's 
Requiem for Soli, Chorus, Organ, and Orchestra, which has, so far as 
is known, never before been heard in America in concert form. The 
soloists were Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, and Conrad Thibault, 
Baritone. Robert Cato was at the Organ. The work was prepared 
and conducted by Dr. Bailly. 


FIFTY members of The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, conducted by 
Ward-Stephens, director of the annual Harrisburg Music Festival, 
and four artist-students of voice — Natalie Bodanskaya, Soprano, 
Paceli Diamond, Me^xp-Soprano, Albert Mahler, Tenor, and Benjamin 
De Loache, Baritone — participated in the performance of Mozart's 
Mass in C mitior w^hich was given on the first day of the Festival, 
Thursday, May 7. This orchestra group of fifty also played and Miss 
Bampton sang on the second day of the Festival, Friday, May 8, when 
Horatio Parker's Hora Novissima and other works were given. 



A complimentary concert by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra was 
tendered the city of Harrisburg by The Curtis Institute of Music on 
Saturday evening, May 9, in the William Penn Auditorium. Vaughan 
Williams' A London Symphony was conducted by Sylvan Levin, a 
student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting. Joseph Levine, artist- 
student of Mr. Hofmann, was soloist in the first movement of Rubin- 
stein's Concerto in D minor for Piano and Orchestra, with Mr. Levin 
conducting the orchestra. Richard Strauss' T/il Eulenspiegels lustigc 
Streiche was conducted by Louis Vyner, a student of Mr. Mlynarski 
in Conducting. The Recitative and Aria — Adieu, Forets, from Tschai- 
kowsky's Jeanne d' Arc, was sung by Rose Bampton, Contralto, artist- 
student of Mr. Connell, with the orchestra again conducted by Mr. 
Levin. The concluding work was Wagner's Prelude to Die Meister- 
singer, which was conducted by Ward-Stephens. 

In addition to its five appearances earlier in this season, in Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Washington, Bryn Mawr, and Harrisburg, The 
Curtis Symphony Orchestra was heard in a sixth and final concert in 
the Academy of Music, in Philadelphia, on the evening of Saturday, 
May 16. In presenting a varied programme, the participants in- 
cluded not only the orchestra composed of ninety-four students, but 
in addition a chorus of forty students from the Vocal Department, 
six artist-students appearing as soloists, and three conductors, of 
whom two are artist-students of the Institute. The programme 
opened with Berlioz' A Roman Carneval Overture, conducted by Sylvan 
Levin. Jules Conus' Concerto in E minor for Violin and Orchestra was 
performed by Paul Gershman, student of Mr. Zimbalist, as soloist, 
and Louis Vyner, as conductor. Jorge Bolet, student of Mr. Saperton, 
was piano soloist in the first movement of Tschaikowsky's Concerto in 
B flat minor, with the orchestra conducted by Mr. Levin. Genia 
Wilkomirska, Dramatic Soprano, student of Madame Sembrich, sang 
the aria, Suicidio, from Ponchielli's La Gioconda, to an accompaniment 
led by Mr. Levin. Tschaikowsky's Overture-Fantasy — Romeo and 
Juliet, was conducted by Louis Vyner. 

The second half of the programme was given over to Gabriel 
Faure's Requiejn for Soli, Chorus, Organ, and Orchestra, receiving its 



second concert performance for the season. On this occasion the 
soloists were Natalie Bodanskava, Soprano, artist-student of Madame 
Sembrich, and Clarence Reinert, Barifone, artist-student of Mr. Con- 
nell, with Robert Cato, a student of the late Dr. Farnam, at the Organ. 
The work was conducted by Dr. Louis Bailly, Head of the Chamber 
Music Department of the Institute. The following are excerpts from 
the Philadelphia press notices on Sunday, May 17. 

INQUIRER: "A programme of impressive magnitude was presented with nota- 
ble musicianship when the symphony orchestra of the Curtis Institute of Music, a 
considerable chorus, and vocal and instrumental soloists combined forces in a special 
concert in the Academv of Music last night A huge invitation audience received 
with the utmost enthusiasm a performance as unusual in scope as it was in execution, 
and w^hich afforded a striking revelation of the resources of the Curtis Institute on 
such an occasion. . . . The chief feature was Gabriel Faure's Kequiet?? .... the 
vocal soloists were in excellent voice, and the chorus parts of the score were sung with 
capital vigor and unity, while the strength of the work was inspiringly reinforced 
and augmented by the fine support of the orchestra." 

LEDGER: "The Curtis Symphony Orchestra gave its last programme of the 
season last night before an audience that filled the Academy of Music to capacity 
and which evidenced its enthusiasm by bringing back the conductors and soloists 
many times after each number." 

RECORD: "The orchestral bodv w^hich occupied the stage for the concert has 
already proved its merit in spite of the youth of its mixed personnel. The programme 
presented three soloists, artist students of the school. Two of the talented students 
occupied the podium, Sylvan Levin, whose work with the Philadelphia Grand 
Opera Company has already brought him recognition, and young Louis Vyner, who 
is already proficient enough to discard both baton and score. The most interesting 
feature of the programme, however, w^as the second presentation of Faure's magnifi- 
cent Kequkfn. This work, introduced to Philadelphia about a month ago at the 
Pennsylvania Museum by the same group who presented it last night, is a worthy 
addition to the repertoire of any musical organization. The rich, transcendental 
beauty, the deep emotional color of the score, received a fine interpretation under the 
direction of Dr. Louis Baillv." 


Two final concerts have been broadcast by artist-students of The 
Curtis Institute of Music in the series of twenty sent out this season 
over thirty-one stations of the Columbia Broadcasting Station on 
Friday afternoons from 4 to 4:45 o'clock, Eastern Standard Time. 
The Nineteenth Programme was that of April 17, when The Curtis 
Symphony Orchestra performed under the leadership of Louis Vyner, 
a student of Mr. Mlynarski in Conducting, assisted by Joseph Levine, 



Viano Soloist, a student of Mr. Hofmann. The works played were 
Wagner's Overture to The Flying Dutchman, the first movement from 
Rubinstein's Concerto in D minor for Piano and Orchestra, and the 
Danse de la fee dragee and Trepak from Tschaikowsky's Nutcracker Suite. 
The Twentieth Programme, concluding the season's broadcasts, 
was presented on April 2.4. The second and third movements from 
Bach's Sixth Brandenburg Concerto in B flat major for Twelve Violas with 
Accompaniment of Eleven Violonecelli, Six Double Basses, and Organ 
Obbligato was played by students of the Institute, conducted by 
Louis Vyner, student of Mr. Mlynarski. At the organ was Robert 
Cato, student of the late Dr. Lynnwood Farnam. This was followed 
by a performance of Gabriel Faure's Requiem for Two Soloists, Chorus, 
Organ, and Orchestra. The soloists were Natalie Bodanskaya, 
Soprano, student of Madame Sembrich, and Conrad Thibault, Baritone, 
student of Mr. de Gogorza; the chorus was made up of students from 
the Voice Department ; Robert Cato was at the organ ; and the orchestra 
consisted of sixty-five members of The Curtis Symphony Orchestra. 
This performance was conducted by Dr. Louis Bailly, and the entire 
programme was under his artistic direction. 


ANNOUNCEMENT has just been made of the appointment of Alice 
Chalifoux, student of Mr. Salzedo, to the position of First 
Harpist in the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Nicolai 
SokolofF. What is particularly striking about this news is the fact 
that Mr. SokolofF was sufficiently impressed by Miss Chalifoux to 
extend her a contract for three years, a procedure which is generally 
admitted to be very unusual. This now makes a total of three Curtis 
students of Harp who occupy first desks in leading symphony orches- 
tras, the other two being Casper Reardon, in the Cincinnati Orchestra, 
and Edna Phillips, in the Philadelphia Orchestra. 

Irven Whitenack, Double Bass student of Mr. Toreilo, played for 
the Wilmington New Century Club, of Wilmington, Delaware, on 
April 8. 



On April 13, Irene Singer, Soprano, Celia Gomberg, Violinist, and 
Sarah Lewis, Accompanist, collaborated in a concert for the Demonstra- 
tion School of Georgetown, Delaware. They are, respectively, 
students of Miss van Emden, Madame Luboshutz, and Mr. Kaufman. 

Eva Stark, Violinist, student of Madame Luboshutz, was soloist on 
April 2.4 in a concert given by the local Jewish Chorus. 

The Swastika Quartet played for the Sacred Heart Convent in 
Overbrook on April zy. 

Carol Deis, Soprano, winner of an At water Kent First Award and 
now a student of Mr. de Gogorza, has been heard frequently over the 
radio during the past month. Singing in conjunction with a String 
Trio over WJZ, in New York, she broadcast on the evenings of May 6, 
8, 13, 15, and 10. On the evening of May 17, she sang with orchestra 
over WEAF in an Artists' Service Programme. 

On Thursday evening, April 2.3, Alice Chalifoux, Flora Green- 
wood, Mary Griffith, Victoria Murdock, Reva Reatha, Harpists, 
students of Mr. Salzedo and Miss Lucile Lawrence, appeared in a 
programme of ensemble music in New York City under the direction 
of Miss Lawrence. The programme included works of Rameau, 
Martini, Couperin, Debussy, and Salzedo. 

Berenice Robinson, student of Mr. Scalero in Composition, has 
won both of the Joseph H. Bearnes Prizes awarded each year by 
Columbia Universitv for musical compositions in large and small 
forms. Miss Robinson's Partita for String Orchestra was selected by the 
Jury, which included Mr. David Mannes and Mr. Daniel Gregory 
Mason, as the work most deserving of the award of the $12.00 prize, 
while her Variations for Piano was chosen for the $900 prize. Gian- 
Carlo Menotti is another student of Mr. Scalero who has recently 
been given a prize. His composition was a set of Variations on a 
thane by Schumann, for Piano, and it won this year's Carl F. Lauber 
Award, in Philadelphia. The award includes both a prize in cash 
and a medal. 

Oscar Shumsky, Violinist, a student of Mr. Zimbalist, will leave in 
August for a concert tour in South Africa during the fall and winter. 

11235 I 

Faculty Activities 



i=^w^ ) 

r-jro^icfi^ 1 ►- 



ixTH in this season's series of Faculty Recitals was the con- 
cert on Thursday evening, April 30, which featured Madame 
Isabelle Vengerova, Pianist, with Madame Lea Luboshutz, 
Violinist^ and Mr. Felix Salmond, Violoncellist^ as collaborat- 
ing artists. The programme was devoted to three ensemble works, as 
follows: Beethoven's Trio, No. ^, in C minor, for Piano, Violin, and 
Violoncello; Rachmaninoff's Sonata, Opus 19, for Piano and Violon- 
cello; and Brahms' Trio in B major. Opus 8, for Piano, Violin, and 

The Tenth (and last) Faculty Recital was that given by Mr. Josef 
Hofmann, Pianist, on Tuesday evening. May 12.. The programme 
comprised the following three works: Schumann's Sonata in F minor 
(Concerto without orchestra); Beethoven's Sonata in C minor, Opusiii; 
and Chopin's Sonata in B minor. Opus 58. 


IN ADDITION to the tecital by Mr. Hofmann reported above, other 
appearances bv him in May included a recital on the evening of 
May 7 in Mt. Vernon, Iowa, and a solo performance with the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra on the afternoon of May 9, also in Mt. Vernon, 

Mr. Felix Salmond, Violoncellist, has completed a very active season 
during which he appeared in recitals in Montreal, Quebec, Saratoga 
Springs, Montclair, New Jersey, Philadelphia, and Milton, Massa- 
chusetts. In New York City he had three appearances, playing in the 
Bagby Morning Musicale series, collaborating with Paul Kochanski, 
Violinist, in playing the Brahms Double Concerto with the Roxy Sym- 
phony Orchestra, and playing for the Beethoven Association with 

I 236 I 


Marie Kaufman. In Cincinnati, he played the Lalo Concerto with that 
city's orchestra, conducted by Fritz Reiner .... During the com- 
ing season, Mr. Salmond plans to appear in Cedar Falls and Northfield, 
Iowa, Grinnel and Oberlin, Ohio, Chicago, the University of Virginia, 
Troy, New York, and in New York City (where he will give two 

Mr. Carlos Salzedo's ballet entitled Music of the Troubadours, the first 
performance of which took place in the Library of Congress, Washing- 
ton, D. C, during the Festival of Chamber Music on April 2.3-15, was 
repeated in New York City on April i6 and 2.7. 

Mr. Stephen Deak, Violoncellist, completed a mid western tour in 
March. He appeared twice as soloist with the Denver Symphony 
Orchestra, and he gave recitals in Longmont and Colorado Springs, 
Colorado. In Kansas, Mr. Deak played in Wichita and Emporia, and 
in April he gave recitals in Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, 
D. C. While in the West, Mr. Deak addressed the Southwestern 
Music Supervisors' Conference in Colorado Springs. 

Mr. Anton Brees, Instructor in Campanology and Bellmaster of the 
Mountain Lake Singing Tower at Mountain Lake, Florida, is to open 
the new Taylor Carillon at the First Plymouth Congregational 
Church, Lincoln, Nebraska, on Memorial Day. Mr. Brees is to give a 
series of recitals there, one of which, announced for June 4, will include 
first performances of the following works by Curtis Institute students 
of Composition — Preclude and Toccata, by Samuel O. Barber, Improvisa- 
tion for Carillon, by Gian-Carlo Menotti, and Campane a festa, by Nino 
Rota. On the same programme there will be compositions by Men- 
delssohn, Dvorak, Handel, Padre Martini, Bach, and Schubert. 

Dr. Samuel W. Fernberger, Instructor in Psychology in the Aca- 
demic Department, left for Europe in the middle of May to give a series 
of lectures at the Psychologisches Institut of the University of Berlin on 
the subject of Psychophysics. 

I 237 1 



Glimpses of the Institute 


HE OFFICE of the Institute's Executive Secretary, Mr. W. 
Creary Woods, presents a happy instance of that combina- 
tion of dignified ease to be found in a private residence with 
the formality required of an educational institution — a 

combination which is characteristic of the Institute not only in its 
recreational rooms and studios, but even in its administrative and 
staff offices. This extremely well-proportioned room was formerly 
the drawing-room of the small house which, facing Rittenhouse 
Square just to the south of the former Drexel house, was one of the 
three properties acquired at the time of the founding of The Curtis 
Institute of Music. The soft-toned panelling, with the finely carved 
rectangular reliefs over the fireplace mirror and the doorway opposite, 
the wall bracket lights, and certain other details were introduced 
several years after the opening of the Institute. The chairs, sofas, and 
commode reveal a strong French influence in their design, and their 
woodwork is identical with that of the wall-panelling. On the man- 
tel is a French Louis XVI clock. The large rug is a Kurdistan (circa 

It is in this room that the various committees hold their meetings. 
Students wishing to address themselves to the Director may do so here 
through the medium of the Executive Secretary. It is also through 
this office that applications for admission pass, and it is here that the 
greatest bulk of the details of administration are prepared for the 
attention of the Director. Students with professional or personal 
problems come here to settle them in quiet informal interviews with 
Mr. Woods. It is here that the manifold details of the various ac- 
tivities are resolved — radio broadcasts, concert course recitals, ap- 
pearances by The Curtis Symphony Orchestra, participation of stu- 
dents in performances by The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, 
recitals of chamber music, outside professional engagements, and 
the like. 


Index to Volume II 


Activities, Faculty 
Casimir Hall Concerts: 
Chasins, Abram, 112. 
Connell, Horatio, iiz 
Hofmann, Josef, 136 

Lawrence, Lucile, and Salzedo, Carlos, 84 
Luboshutz, Lea (and Emil Mlynarski), iiz 
Miinz, Mieczyslaw, 85 
Salmond, Felix (and Harry Kaufman), 144 
Van Emden, Harriet, 84 
Vengerova, Isabelle (and Lea Luboshutz, 

Felix Salmond), 136 
Zimbalist, Efrem (and Harry Kaufman), 173 
Outside of the Institute: 37, 85, 113, 145, 173, 193, 

Activities, Student 
Casimir Hall Concerts: 

Chamber Music, 196 

Double Bass, 2.13 

Harp, 195 

Harp Ensemble, 196 

Operatic Acting, 2.2.7-9 (t^hrce') 

Piano, 105, 2.2.3, ^M (''"''')> ^^6 

Piano and Violin, 165, 195 

Viola, 2.16 

Violin, 38, 76, 138, 195 (two), 196, ii6 

Violoncello, 12.3 

Voice, ^2.4 (two), 2.2.5, ^^^ 

Wind Ensemble, Z2.5 
Chamber Music: 46, 78, 107, 140, 170, 198, 2.31 
Concert Course: 78, 107, 141, 171, 199, 2.2.9 
Opra: 38, 76, 105, 138, 166, 198, 117 
Orchestra: 8, 106, 139, 167, zoo, Z31 
Other Events: 49, 8z, no, 14Z, 171, zoi, 134 
Radio: 47, 79, 107, 141, 171, zoo, Z33 

Bailly, Louis: How I Became a Viola Player, 33 
Bloom, James: A Letter from Camden, Maine, 15 

Concert by the Musical Art Quartet, 165 
Connell, Horatio: Of era Considered from Several 
Viewpoints, zii 

De Montoliu, Placido: Concepts of Time, Measure, 
and Rhythm, Z15 

Editorial Comment, 5, 6, 8, 61, 93, 153, 181, 183, 

Finn, Caesar: The Curtis Institute of Music, \x 

Glimpses of the Institute: 
Vin. Collection of Rare Instruments, 51 

IX. Entrance Doors to Casimir Hall, 115 

X. The Studio of Mr. Josef Hofmann, 175 

XI. The Office of the Executive Secretary, Z39 
Goldowsky, Boris: A Note on Beethoven's Sonatas 

for Piano and Violin, 134 
Grobani, Benjamin, Philadelphia Recital, zzi 

Hofmann, Josef : Professor Leopold Auer, <); What is 
Wrong with the Pianol , 95 

Kaufman, Harry: Random Observations on the 
Accompanist as Interpretive Artist, 185 

The Library: 

Check List of New Books in the Library, Z7, 

53, 87 
Exhibits, 146 
Phonograph Recordings, 146 

Music Calendar, Z7, 56, 88, 116, 148, 176, Z04 

Pons, Max: Coaching Singers, 190 

Salmond, Felix: The Violoncello, Instrument of Song, 

Salzedo, Carlos : On Determining The Art of Working, 

Scalero, Rosario: Art and Its Aesthetic Significance, 

Spofford, Grace: German Music Festivals .... 

Summer, ipjo, 98 
Special Lectures, 193 
Summer Activities, 17 

Temianka, Henri, Recital by, 48 (see also Henri 
Temianka in Europe, zzo) 

Von Wymetal, Jr., Wilhelm: A Consideration of 

Current Problems of the Opera, 155 
Vyner, Louis : A Music Student in Poland, ji 

With Our Graduate Students: 
Henri Temianka in Europe, zzo 
Benjamin Grobani' s Philadelphia Recital, zzi 





Artist Students Who Participated in the Perform- 
ances of Gianni Schicchi and Pag/iacci, 40, 41, 

43.45 , ., , 

Artist Students Who Have Appeared With The 

Curtis Symphony Orchestra, 168, 169 
Artist Students Who Sang in Alban Berg's IVoz- 

Zeck, 197 
Auer, Leopold, 10 

Bailly, Louis, 32. 

Bailly, Louis, with Students in Sorrento, Maine, 

Bodanskaya, Natalie, 41, 168 

Cable, Mildred, 169 
Casimir Hall, Entrance Doors to, 114 
Casimir Hall, Interior of, ill 
Connell, Horatio, iio 

Connell, Horatio, and His Students at Chautau- 
qua, N. Y., 2.3 
Connell Vocal Quartet, The, 80 

Davis, Agnes, 43 

De Loache, Benjamin, 43, 197 

De Long, Alfred, 45 

De Montoliu, Placido, 2.14 

Diamond, Paceli, 41 

Eustis, Edwina, 197 

Farnam, Lynnwood, 60 

Healy, Daniel, 45 
Hofmann, Josef, 96 

Hofmann, Josef, A Game of Chess With, in Cam- 
den, Maine, 18 
Holmgren, Arthur, 45 
Horle, Henriette, 42. 

Ippolito, Carmela, 169 

Jepson, Helen, 43 

Kaufman, Harry, 186 

Levin, Sylvan, 40, 168 

Levine, Joseph, 168 

Luboshutz, Lea, Camden Students of, 19 

Mahler, Albert, 42., 197 

Mlynarski, Emil, with Louis Vyner in Zakopane, 
Poland, 73 

Office of the Executive Secretary, 2.38 

Rare Violins and Violas from the Curtis Institute 

Collection, 50 
Robofsky, Abrasha, 45, 197 

Salmond, Felix, 64 

Salzedo, Carlos, 160 

Salzedo, Carlos, "Bull-Fight" in Seal Harbor, 
Maine, 2.1 

Scalero, Rosario, 12.0 

Scalero, Rosario, with His Students in Northern 
Italy, 2.6 

Scenes from The Philadelphia Grand Opera Com- 
panv's Production of Alban Berg's IVozz^ck, 

Sembrich, Marcella, Tea With, at Lake George, 2.2. 

Soloists, Chorus, and Orchestra in Final Pennsyl- 
vania Museum of Art Chamber Music Con- 
cert by Curtis Institute Students, 2.30 

SpofFord, Grace, loi 

Stokowski, Leopold, i8l 

Studio of Mr. Josef Hofmann, The, 174 

Swastika Quartet, The, 108 

Tasso, Fiorenzo, 168 
Thibault, Conrad, 43, 169 

Van Emden, Harriet, and Her Students in Wil- 

liamstown, 2.4 
Von Wymetal, Jr., Wilhelm, 154 
Vyner, Louis, with Emil Mlynarski in Zakopane, 

Poland, 73 





Grantville P4